**History of Mathematics**

Volume: 23;
2002;
406 pp;
Hardcover

MSC: Primary 01;

Print ISBN: 978-0-8218-2124-4

Product Code: HMATH/23

List Price: $103.00

Individual Member Price: $82.40

**Electronic ISBN: 978-1-4704-3891-3
Product Code: HMATH/23.E**

List Price: $103.00

Individual Member Price: $82.40

# Mathematics Unbound: The Evolution of an International Mathematical Research Community, 1800–1945

Share this page *Edited by *
*Karen Hunger Parshall; Adrian C. Rice*

A co-publication of the AMS and the London Mathematical Society

Although today's mathematical research community takes its international
character very much for granted, this “global nature” is relatively
recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years—from the
beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century.
During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a
collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an
international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and
cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an
international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war,
political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been
largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike.

This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts
in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's
international mathematical community. This includes not only developments
within component national mathematical communities, such as the growth of
societies and journals, but also more wide-ranging political, philosophical,
linguistic, and pedagogical issues.

The resulting volume is essential reading for anyone interested in the
history of modern mathematics. It will be of interest to mathematicians,
historians of mathematics, and historians of science in general.

#### Readership

Graduate students, research mathematicians, and historians of mathematics.

#### Reviews & Endorsements

These excellent proceedings further testify to the fact that the internationalization of mathematics is a topic whose time has come.

-- Mathematical Reviews

#### Table of Contents

# Table of Contents

## Mathematics Unbound: The Evolution of an International Mathematical Research Community, 1800-1945

- Cover Cover11
- Title page v6
- Contents vii8
- Acknowledgments xiii14
- List of contributors xv16
- Photograph and figure credits xxi22
- The evolution of an international mathematical research community, 1800–1945: An overview and an agenda 124
- The end of dominance: The diffusion of French mathematics elsewhere, 1820–1870 1740
- Spanish initiatives to bring mathematics in Spain into the international mainstream 4568
- International mathematical contributions to British scientific journals, 1800–1900 6184
- International participation in Liouville’s Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées 89112
- The effects of war on France’s international role in mathematics, 1870–1914 105128
- Photo of Charles Hermite 122145
- Charles Hermite and German mathematics in France 123146
- Photo of Mittag-Leffler 138161
- Gösta Mittag-Leffler and the foundation and administration of Acta Mathematica 139162
- An episode in the evolution of a mathematical community: The case of Cesare Arzelà at Bologna 165188
- The first international mathematical community: The Circolo matematico di Palermo 179202
- Languages for mathematics and the language of mathematics in a world of nations 201224
- The emergence of the Japanese mathematical community in the modern western style, 1855–1945 229252
- Internationalizing mathematics east and west: Individuals and institutions in the emergence of a modern mathematical community in China 253276
- Chinese–U. S. mathematical relations, 1859–1949 287310
- American initiatives toward internationalization: The case of Leonard Dickson 311334
- The effects of Nazi rule on the international participation of German mathematicians: An overview and two case studies 335358
- War, refugees, and the creation of an international mathematical community 359382
- The formation of the international mathematical union 381404
- Index 399422
- Back Cover Back Cover1430