Contents Preface ix What Is Statistics? xv Chapter 1. Summarizing Data 1 1.1. Data in R 1 1.2. Graphical and Numerical Summaries of Univariate Data 4 1.3. Graphical and Numerical Summaries of Multivariate Data 17 1.4. Summary 20 Exercises 21 Chapter 2. Probability and Random Variables 27 2.1. Introduction to Probability 28 2.2. Additional Probability Rules and Counting Methods 33 2.3. Discrete Distributions 49 2.4. Hypothesis Tests and p-Values 56 2.5. Mean and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable 65 2.6. Joint Distributions 72 2.7. Other Discrete Distributions 80 2.8. Summary 92 Exercises 97 Chapter 3. Continuous Distributions 113 3.1. pdfs and cdfs 113 3.2. Mean and Variance 124 3.3. Higher Moments 126 3.4. Other Continuous Distributions 133 v
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