610 Index blocking, 467, 468, 502 Bonferroni correction, 444 Bonferroni’s Inequality, 99 Box, G., 323 boxplot, 15, see also bwplot(), 528 Bradley-Terry model, 390 Bristol, Muriel, 86 bulge rule, 363 cardinality, 34, 552 cards, 38, 41, 46, 98, 100, 101 Cartesian product, 36, 552 case-control study, 295, 296 cat, 105 categorical variable, 4 Cauchy distribution, 167, 167, 217 cdf, 92, see cumulative distribution function cdf method, 118, 119, 121, 136, 256 Central Limit Theorem, 196, 221 characteristic function, 194, 553 Chebyshev’s Inequality, 189 Chevalier de Mere, 102 chi-squared distribution, 211, 236, 269, 279, 286 chi-squared statistic likelihood ratio (G2), 281, 282 Pearson (X2), 279, 279, 280 Chisq(ν), see chi-squared distribution cholesterol, 327, 451 CIsim(), 203 clinical trial, 293 cloud plot, 415, see also cloud() coagulation, 424, 426 codomain, 552 coeﬃcient of determinism, 349, 364, 392, 413, see also correlation coeﬃcient coin toss, 30, 38, 49, 56, 65, 101, 102 collinearity, 421, 477 colors in R, 532 combinatorial argument, 41 comment character in R (#), 513 complement, 39, 551 complement rule, 39 Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN), 507 concrete, 404, 409, 493 condition, 7 conditional distribution, 73, 157 conditional probability, 44 confidence ellipse, see confidence region confidence interval, 206, see also confidence region for mean, 206 for new response, 350 for parameters of a linear model, 345, 346, 347 for proportion, 223 confidence region, 274 conjugate prior, 311 conservative, 86, 199, 287, 319, 444 consistent estimator, 189 continuity correction, 196, 196, 198 continuous random variable, 114 contrast, 433, 441, 501, 502 orthogonal, 440 sample, 439 convergence in distribution, 192 Cook’s distance, 357 Cook, R. D., 357 correlation coeﬃcient, 334, 398, 413, 471 counting, 34, 94 coverage rate, 203 CRAN, see Comprehensive R Archive Network credibility interval, 307 critical values, 63 cumulative distribution function, 51, 115 data, xv data cleaning, 222 De Morgan’s Laws, 99, 99 decile, 14 degrees of freedom, 211 dependent variable, 324 DFBETA, 358 DFBETAS, 358 DFFITS, 358 diabetes, see FUSION Diaconis, Persi, 91 diagnostics, 353 dice, 45, 46, 60, 100, 102, 251 digit leading, see Benford’s Law dim(Ω), see dimension of a model dimension of a model, 409 disease, 101 distribution, 4 division principle, 39 domain, 552 donut, 98

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