Index 317 valency of a vertex, 222 Vandermonde matrix, 34, 167 vector norms, 113–116 vector space, 1 vertex degree of, 222 initial, 235 isolated, 222 terminal, 235 vertices of a graph, 169, 221 walk closed, 224 directed, 236 open, 224 walk in a graph, 224 Weyr, 60 Weyr characteristic, 60–61 Weyr normal form, 67–68 Wielandt, 154, 179 Williamson, 212–216 Witt cancellation theorem, 200 (0, 1)-matrix, 169 zero matrix, 5 zero-one matrix, 169
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