Volume 316, 2002
Lusternik-Schnirelmann Category in Homotopy Theory
Dedicated to the memory of Israel Berstein and Tudor Ganea
The notion of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category (which we will usually abbrevi-
ate here as LS-cat) first appeared in a paper by Lusternik and Schnirelmann
in 1934. It was a property of smooth manifolds related to the minimum number of
singularities of certain special functions defined on those manifolds. It was certainly
not difficult to see that the LS-category could be extended to arbitrary spaces (so
surely to CW-complexes) and was a homotopy invariant. However, its nature and
its purpose were rather far removed from the usual interests of homotopy theorists.
In particular, it was a numerical invariant, not a functor (thus very different from,
say, the homology groups and homotopy groups), and so did not seem likely to be
responsive to the methods of study which had proved so powerful in connection
with the algebraic invariants of homotopy type.
A connection with the familiar concerns of homotopy theorists is, however,
furnished by the observation that spaces X with LS-cat X
2 (we are here nor-
malizing so that spaces of LS-category 1 are simply the contractible spaces) include
all the suspension spaces
is a CW-complex with base point
j) U (Yo
with the obvious base point. Then we may enlarge the 'northern and southern
1] to open sets which are, indeed, not merely
but contractible in themselves. Moreover, suspension spaces are
provided with a crucial structure map
' - (*,(y,2t-1))
here* stands for the base point and
is the one-point union of two copies of
regarded as embedded in
in the obvious way. The map
to homotopy, 3 axioms dual (in the sense
of Eckmann-Hilton) to the group axioms
Mathematics Subject Classification.
Primary 55M30; Secondary 55P30, 55P99.
This is the sense in which we will talk of dual concepts throughout this paper.
@2002 American Mathematical Society