0.6. Absolute neighborhood retracts 13
(3) Y is k-connected and locally k-connected.
It follows easily from Theorem 0.6.1 that every finite-dimensional poly-
hedron or CW complex is an ANR. The Hawaiian earring is not an ANR;
neither is the sine (1/x) curve (Figure 2.13).
The next theorem identifies an especially useful property of ANRs.
Theorem 0.6.3. Let Y be a compact ANR and a positive number. There
exists δ 0 such that for any two maps f0,f1 : S Y of an arbitrary space
S to Y with d(f0,f1) δ, there is a homotopy H : S × I Y such that
H0 = f0, H1 = f1, and diam H({s} × I) for all s S.
Sketch of Proof. Embed Y in the Hilbert cube
I∞
= Πn=1[0,

1/n], where
it has a neighborhood U that retracts to the embedded copy Y of Y . Choose
δ small enough that the straight line homotopy from f0 to f1 stays in U and
still has diameter less than after being retracted into Y .
Theorem 0.6.4 (Estimated Homotopy Extension Theorem). Let Y be an
ANR, X a normal space, f : X Y a map, b : Y (0, ∞] another map,
A a closed subset of X, U a neighborhood of A in X, and µ : A × I Y
a homotopy such that µ0 = f|A and diam µ({a} × I) b(µ(a, t)) for all
a A and t I. Then there exists a homotopy H : X × I Y such
that H0 = f, H|A × I = µ, H({x} × I) = f(x) for all x X U, and
diam H({x} × I) b(H(x, t)) for all x X and t I.
Proof. Define a map F on Z = (X × {0}) (A × I) X × I as f on
X ×{0} and µ on A×I. Since Y is an ANR, F has an extension F : O Y
over some neighborhood O of Z in X × I. Find an open subset V of X,
A V U, such that V × I O and diam F({v} × I) b(F(v, t)) for all
v V and t I. Apply Urysohn’s Lemma to obtain a map η : X [0, 1]
for which η(X V ) = 0 and η(A) = 1. Finally, define H : X × I Y as
H(x, t) = F(x, η(x)t).
Corollary 0.6.5. Suppose R : Y A is a retraction of an ANR Y to
a compact subset A, and suppose η : A × I Y is a homotopy between
η0 = inclA and an embedding λ = η1. Then Y retracts to λ(A); moreover,
if λ moves points less than c 0 and diam Rη({a} × I) b for all a A,
then there is a retraction R : Y λ(A) such that d(R (y),R(y)) b + 2c
for all y Y .
Proof. The homotopy η =
λRη(λ−1
× Id) : λ(A) × I λ(A) satisfies
η1 = λR|λ(A) and η0 = Id; obviously η1 extends to λR : Y λ(A).
Exercises
0.6.1. Every n-cell is an AR.
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