1.2. CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 3
unique continuation. These were developed independently in physics and in
mathematics and are unified nicely by semiclassical Carleman estimates; see
Chapter 7.
1.1.4. Other directions. This book is devoted to semiclassical analysis as
a branch of linear PDE theory. The ideas explored here are useful in other
areas. One is the study of quantum maps where symplectic transformations
on compact manifolds are quantized to give matrices. The semiclassical
parameter is then related to the size of the matrix. These are popular
models in physics partly due to the relative ease of numerical computations;
see Haake [Hak] and references in Chapter 13 of this text. Many other
large N limit problems enjoy semiclassical interpretation, in the sense of
connecting analysis to geometry. In this book we present one example: a
semiclassical proof of Quillen’s Theorem (Theorem 13.18) which is related
to Hilbert’s 17th problem.
Semiclassical concepts also appear in the study of nonlinear PDE. One
direction is provided by nonlinear equations with an asymptotic parameter
which in some physically motivated problems plays a role similar to h in
Section 1.1.1 above. One natural equation is the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlin-
ear Schr¨ odinger equation; see for instance the book by Carles [Car]. An
example of a numerical study is given in Potter [Po] where a semiclassical
approximation is used to describe solitons in an external field.
Another set of microlocal methods useful in nonlinear PDE is provided
by the paradifferential calculus of Bony, Coifman, and Meyer; see for instance
etivier [Me], and for a brief introduction see B´enyi–Maldonado–Naibo
[B-M-N]. The semiclassical parameter appears in the Littlewood-Paley
decomposition just as it does in Chapter 7, while the pseudodifferential
classes are more exotic than the ones considered in Chapter 4.
1.2. CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS
We introduce and foreshadow a bit about quantum and classical correspon-
dences.
1.2.1. Observables. We can think of a given function a :
Rn
×
Rn
C,
a = a(x, ξ), as a classical observable on phase space, where as above x
denotes position and ξ denotes momentum. We usually call a a symbol.
Let h 0 be given. We will associate with the observable a a correspond-
ing quantum observable
aw(x,
hD), an operator defined by the formula
aw(x,
hD)u(x) :=
1
(2πh)n
Rn Rn
e
i
h
x−y,ξ
a
(
x+y
2
, ξ
)
u(y) dξdy
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