7. The Euler Characteristic 31
In general, we conclude that lim
χτ− (fτ− ) is the sum of αi such that
Ai ∩ Hτ− = ∅ for all suﬃciently small 0. It follows then that
χτ (fτ ) − lim
χτ− (fτ− ) =
αi, where I = i : min
(x) = τ .
In particular, lim
χτ− (fτ− ) = χτ (fτ ) unless τ is the minimum value of the
linear function (x) on some set Ai.
Therefore, for a given function f ∈
there are only finitely many τ’s,
χτ− (fτ− ) = χτ (fτ ). Now we define
χτ (fτ ) − lim
χτ− (fτ− ) .
As we noted, the sum contains only finitely many non-zero summands, so it is well
If f, g ∈ K(Rd) are functions and α, β ∈ R are numbers, then for every τ ∈ R
we have (αf + βg)τ = αfτ + βgτ . Since by the induction hypothesis χτ is a
valuation and taking the limit is a linear operation, we conclude that χ(αf + βg) =
αχ(f) + βχ(g), so χ is a valuation. Furthermore, if A ⊂
is a compact convex
χτ ([A]τ ) − lim
χτ− ([A]τ− ) =
1 if minx∈A (x) = τ,
Since A is a non-empty compact convex set, there is unique minimum value of the
linear function (x) on A. Therefore, χ([A]) = 1.
Now we are ready to extend χ onto
Let B(ρ) = x ∈
: x ≤ ρ be
the ball of radius ρ. For f ∈
χ(f) = lim
f · [B(ρ)].
Clearly, χ satisfies the required properties.
Theorem 7.4 and its proof belongs to H. Hadwiger.
If A ⊂ Rd is a set such that [A] ∈ C(Rd), we often write χ(A) instead of χ([A])
and call it the Euler characteristic of the set A. In the course of the proof of
Theorem 7.4, we established the following useful fact, which will play the central
role in our approach to the Euler-Poincar´ e Formula of Section VI.3.
(7.5) Lemma. Let A ⊂
be a set such that [A] ∈
For τ ∈ R let Hτ
be the hyperplane consisting of the points x = (ξ1, . . . , ξd) with ξd = τ. Then
[A ∩ Hτ ] ∈
χ(A ∩ Hτ ) − lim
χ(A ∩ Hτ− ) .
Another useful result allows us to express the Euler characteristic of a union of
sets in terms of the Euler characteristics of the intersections of the sets.