§2. Symplectic structure on coadjoint orbits 7
Proposition 1. The 2-form ΣF = pF

(σ) on G is the exterior derivative of
the left-invariant real-valued 1-form θF given by
(9) θF = F, Θ .
Proof. We shall use the formula for the exterior derivative of a 1-form (see
(19) from Appendix II.2.3):
dθ(ξ, η) = ξθ(η) ηθ(ξ) θ([ξ, η]).
Let X and Y be left-invariant vector fields on G (see the fourth definition
of a Lie algebra in Appendix III.1.3). Putting θ = θF , ξ = X, η = Y , we
get
dθF (X, Y ) = XθF (Y ) Y θF (X) θF ([X, Y ]).
The first and second terms in the right-hand side vanish because θF (X)
and θF (Y ) are constant functions. We can rewrite the last term as
−θF ([X, Y ]) = −θF ([X, Y ]) = F, [X, Y ] = pF

(σ)(X, Y ).
Now we return to the form σ. Since pF is a submersion, the linear map
(pF )∗ is surjective. Therefore, the dual map pF

is injective. But pF

=
dpF

(σ) = d ΣF =
d2θF
= 0. Hence, σ is closed.
Note that in general θF cannot be written as pF

(φ) for some 1-form φ
on Ω, so we cannot claim that σ is exact (and actually it is not in general).
2.2. The second (Poisson) approach.
We now discuss another way to introduce the canonical symplectic struc-
ture on coadjoint orbits. It is based on the notion of Poisson manifold (see
Appendix II.3.2).
Consider the real n-dimensional vector space V and, making an excep-
tion to the general rules, denote the coordinates (X1, . . . , Xn) on V using
lower indices. Let c be a bivector field on V with linear coefficients:
(10) c = cijXk
k ∂i

∂j
where
∂i
= ∂/∂Xi ,
∂j
= ∂/∂Xj , and cij
k
=
−cji.k
Lemma 3. The bivector (10) defines a Poisson structure on V if and only
if the coefficients cij
k
form a collection of structure constants for some Lie
algebra g.
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