Notation
X « Y means that the topological spaces X and Y are homeomor-
phic;
X ~ Y means that the topological spaces X and Y are homotopy
equivalent;
f ~ g means that the map / is homotopic to g\
\A\ denotes the cardinality of the set A\
int A denotes the interior of A;
A denotes the closure of A;
dA denotes the boundary of A;
id^ denotes the identity map on A;
Kn denotes the complete graph on n vertices;
-^n,7n5 see p. (\

Dn
denotes the n-disk (or n-ball);

Sn
denotes the n-sphere;
A
n
denotes the n-simplex;

In
denotes the n-cube;

P2
denotes the projective plane;

T2
denotes the two-dimensional torus;

S2#nP2
and
nP2
denote the connected sum of n projective planes;

S2#nT2
and
nT2
denote the connected sum of n 2-tori (the sphere
with n handles);

K2
denotes the Klein bottle;
XI
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