Notation X « Y means that the topological spaces X and Y are homeomor- phic X ~ Y means that the topological spaces X and Y are homotopy equivalent f ~ g means that the map / is homotopic to g\ \A\ denotes the cardinality of the set A\ int A denotes the interior of A A denotes the closure of A dA denotes the boundary of A id^ denotes the identity map on A Kn denotes the complete graph on n vertices -^n,7n5 see p. (\ Dn denotes the n-disk (or n-ball) Sn denotes the n-sphere A n denotes the n-simplex In denotes the n-cube P2 denotes the projective plane T2 denotes the two-dimensional torus S2#nP2 and nP2 denote the connected sum of n projective planes S2#nT2 and nT2 denote the connected sum of n 2-tori (the sphere with n handles) K2 denotes the Klein bottle XI
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