1.1. ANCIENT TIMES 7 then placed in a corked tube in the stoppers of beer barrels for Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Anthony Babington plotted to kill Queen Elizabeth I. He used beer barrels to conceal his message, telling Mary Stuart of the plot and his intent to place her, Mary, on the throne. He demanded a personal reply. In doing so, Mary implicated herself when the barrels were confiscated long enough to copy the message. They decrypted the message using letter frequency techniques (see Table 4.1 of §4.1). Mary Stuart was subsequently charged with treason and beheaded. Double agents began to be widespread, especially during the American Revolution. Indeed, the infamous Benedict Arnold used a particular code called a book code. Because he was trusted, his correspondence was never checked and thus never tested. Not knowing whether that would continue to be true, he often used invisible ink to further hide his code. Aaron Burr, who had at one time worked for Arnold, got caught up in his own scandal after Thomas Jefferson was elected president. Burr had been elected vice president, and he was ambitious and wanted to advance to the presidency. Alexander Hamilton learned of a plot to have New England and New York secede and publicly linked Burr to the plot. This led to the famous Hamilton–Burr duel, where Hamilton was killed. People turned against Burr as a result, and he, in turn, developed an elaborate scheme to get rid of Jefferson. The scheme included ciphers to link all of the many parts and people, some from Spain and England. Despite eventual evidence of deciphered messages, Burr was not convicted of treason. Telegraphy and various ciphers played key roles during the Civil War. The Stager cipher was particularly amenable to telegraphy because it was a simple word transposition. The message was written in lines and transcribed using the columns that the lines formed. Secrecy was further secured by throwing in extraneous symbols and creating mazes through the columns. Consider the following simple example: j o e i s a n t t o s o r o n o n a r t Most likely this would be read as “Joe is ant [antithetical] to soron [General Soron] on art”. But the intent is to read it as “Jason traitor”. Women have always been directly involved in cryptography. An interest- ing example occurred during the Battle of Bull Run. A woman called Rebel Rose Greenhow sent messages to the Confederate defenders about Union troop movements and numbers. She used everything from pockets hidden in her clothing to coded designs embroidered into her dresses. She was so effective that the Federal authorities began counterespionage missions and tracked leaks to party and parlor gossip. Greenhow’s chief nemesis turned out to be Allan Pinkerton, the famous detective. He eventually trapped her and had her imprisoned however, even from her cell she managed to create
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