12 1. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION General Douglas MacArthur commanded an Allied Intelligence Unit formed from Australian, British, Dutch, and U.S. units. They contributed to de- cisive Allied victories by successfully discovering Japan’s critical military locations and their intended battles, such as Midway. Traitors and counterespionage efforts continued to exist through the rest of the war. For example, the attach´ e Frank Fellers gave too-frequent and de- tailed reports about the British actions in North Africa, and German eaves- droppers snared various reports, reencrypted them and distributed them to Rommel. However, Fellers’ activities were discovered, and Rommel was ultimately defeated after this source of information ceased. Another aspect of cryptography is misdirection. The end of World War II was expedited through the transmission of codes and ciphers intended to be intercepted by German intelligence. Various tricks were employed to communicate false information and mislead them into believing something else was going on. They even had vessels sent to these bogus locations to give the appearance of an impending battle. We’ll discuss some of these in greater detail in Chapter 3. 1.3. Postwar Cryptography, Computers, and Security After World War II came the Cold War, which many feared could flare into an active war between the Soviets and the U.S. and her allies. It was a time of spies and counterspies, and people who played both sides of the fence. The damage to U.S. intelligence from activities of people like Andrew Lee and Christopher Boyce, the Falcon and the Snowman, was irreparable. They sold vital information to Soviet agents in California and Mexico, including top-secret cipher lists and satellite reconnaissance data in the 1970s. As a result, the Russians began protecting their launches and ballistic missile tests with better encrypted telemetry signals. Another spy operated in the 1980s, John Walker. He was a Navy radio operator who used the KL-47, a mainstay of naval communications. It was an electronic rotor machine more advanced than the Enigma machine. He provided the Russians with wiring diagrams, and they were able to recon- struct the circuitry and determine with computer searches the millions of possible encrypted variations and read the encrypted messages. Jewels was the codename for the carefully guarded cipher machines in Moscow used by the CIA and NSA cipher clerks. Many precautions were taken to protect the computer’s CPU, and the cipher machines were state of the art with key numbers and magnetic strips that changed daily. Messages were double encrypted however the Soviets managed to “clean” the power line to the machines so that electronic filters could be bypassed. The results of the subsequent leaks revealed many CIA agents who were then expelled, as well as revealing U.S. negotiating positions. One of the more famous recent spies was identified in 1994 as Aldrich Ames, a CIA analyst, whose father Carleton had also been a CIA counterspy
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