12 1. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION
General Douglas MacArthur commanded an Allied Intelligence Unit formed
from Australian, British, Dutch, and U.S. units. They contributed to de-
cisive Allied victories by successfully discovering Japan’s critical military
locations and their intended battles, such as Midway.
Traitors and counterespionage efforts continued to exist through the rest
of the war. For example, the attach´ e Frank Fellers gave too-frequent and de-
tailed reports about the British actions in North Africa, and German eaves-
droppers snared various reports, reencrypted them and distributed them
to Rommel. However, Fellers’ activities were discovered, and Rommel was
ultimately defeated after this source of information ceased.
Another aspect of cryptography is misdirection. The end of World War
II was expedited through the transmission of codes and ciphers intended
to be intercepted by German intelligence. Various tricks were employed to
communicate false information and mislead them into believing something
else was going on. They even had vessels sent to these bogus locations to
give the appearance of an impending battle. We’ll discuss some of these in
greater detail in Chapter 3.
1.3. Postwar Cryptography, Computers, and Security
After World War II came the Cold War, which many feared could flare into
an active war between the Soviets and the U.S. and her allies. It was a time
of spies and counterspies, and people who played both sides of the fence.
The damage to U.S. intelligence from activities of people like Andrew Lee
and Christopher Boyce, the Falcon and the Snowman, was irreparable. They
sold vital information to Soviet agents in California and Mexico, including
top-secret cipher lists and satellite reconnaissance data in the 1970s. As
a result, the Russians began protecting their launches and ballistic missile
tests with better encrypted telemetry signals.
Another spy operated in the 1980s, John Walker. He was a Navy radio
operator who used the KL-47, a mainstay of naval communications. It was
an electronic rotor machine more advanced than the Enigma machine. He
provided the Russians with wiring diagrams, and they were able to recon-
struct the circuitry and determine with computer searches the millions of
possible encrypted variations and read the encrypted messages.
Jewels was the codename for the carefully guarded cipher machines in
Moscow used by the CIA and NSA cipher clerks. Many precautions were
taken to protect the computer’s CPU, and the cipher machines were state of
the art with key numbers and magnetic strips that changed daily. Messages
were double encrypted; however the Soviets managed to “clean” the power
line to the machines so that electronic filters could be bypassed. The results
of the subsequent leaks revealed many CIA agents who were then expelled,
as well as revealing U.S. negotiating positions.
One of the more famous recent spies was identified in 1994 as Aldrich
Ames, a CIA analyst, whose father Carleton had also been a CIA counterspy
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