330 INDEX codeword, 240, 247 codex, 4 collision, 223 composite, 29, 192 composition, 85 congruent, 27 connected, 205 cover image, 270 crib, 70 cryptanalysis, 1 cryptography, xi, 1, 20 cryptology, 1 decimal expansion, 189 decimal number system, 133 decipher, 21 decode, 21 decryption, 1 degree, 173 Demon, 13 DES, 275 deterministic, 305 Diffie–Hellman, 225, 227 digital signatures, 220 digits, 189 Dirichlet’s pigeon-hole principle, 224, 234 disconnected, 205 discrete logarithm problem, 228 divisors, 29 greatest common, 29 nontrivial proper, 29 proper, 29 double factorial, 63 DoubleBabyBlock cipher, 162 edges, 173 encrypt, 21 encryption, 1 Enigma, 11, 51, 52 notches, 65 plugboard, 60 reflector, 65 rotors, 64 equivalent, 27 Euclid’s proof of the infinitude of primes, 290 Euclidean algorithm, 183 extended, 184, 187 Euler totient function, 215, 236, 305 Euler’s theorem, 211, 237 extended Euclidean algorithm, 184, 187 factorial double, 63 factorial function, 23, 56 factorization brute force, 291, 292 Fermat’s method, 295, 297 factors, 29 fast exponentiation, 191 feature coding, 272 Ferguson, 261 Fermat Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT), 210 Fermat’s little Theorem (F T), 198 method, 295, 297 primality test, 200, 299 test for PC, 300 witness, 201 Fibonacci, 207 Fibonacci numbers, 74, 233 filtering, 275 fixed length code, 247 floor, 183, 188 frequency analysis, 82 function Euler totient, 305 factorial, 23 inverse, 85 functions, 85 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, 29, 291 Gaussian elimination, 149 Germain prime, 232 graph, 173 adjacent, 173 degree, 173 edges, 173 loop, 173 vertices, 173 greatest common divisor (gcd), 29, 182, 183 Hales, 261 Hamming code, 253 Hamming distance, 248 hash functions, 222 ToyHash algorithm, 222 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, 278 hieroglyphs, 2 Hill cipher, 39, 40 horizontal line shift coding, 272 Horner’s algorithm, 232
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