330 INDEX
codeword, 240, 247
codex, 4
collision, 223
composite, 29, 192
composition, 85
congruent, 27
connected, 205
cover image, 270
crib, 70
cryptanalysis, 1
cryptography, xi, 1, 20
cryptology, 1
decimal expansion, 189
decimal number system, 133
decipher, 21
decode, 21
decryption, 1
degree, 173
Demon, 13
DES, 275
deterministic, 305
Diffie–Hellman, 225, 227
digital signatures, 220
digits, 189
Dirichlet’s pigeon-hole principle, 224,
234
disconnected, 205
discrete logarithm problem, 228
divisors, 29
greatest common, 29
nontrivial proper, 29
proper, 29
double factorial, 63
DoubleBabyBlock cipher, 162
edges, 173
encrypt, 21
encryption, 1
Enigma, 11, 51, 52
notches, 65
plugboard, 60
reflector, 65
rotors, 64
equivalent, 27
Euclid’s proof of the infinitude of
primes, 290
Euclidean algorithm, 183
extended, 184, 187
Euler totient function, 215, 236, 305
Euler’s theorem, 211, 237
extended Euclidean algorithm, 184, 187
factorial
double, 63
factorial function, 23, 56
factorization
brute force, 291, 292
Fermat’s method, 295, 297
factors, 29
fast exponentiation, 191
feature coding, 272
Ferguson, 261
Fermat
Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT), 210
Fermat’s little Theorem (F T), 198
method, 295, 297
primality test, 200, 299
test for PC, 300
witness, 201
Fibonacci, 207
Fibonacci numbers, 74, 233
filtering, 275
fixed length code, 247
floor, 183, 188
frequency analysis, 82
function
Euler totient, 305
factorial, 23
inverse, 85
functions, 85
Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic,
29, 291
Gaussian elimination, 149
Germain prime, 232
graph, 173
adjacent, 173
degree, 173
edges, 173
loop, 173
vertices, 173
greatest common divisor (gcd), 29, 182,
183
Hales, 261
Hamming code, 253
Hamming distance, 248
hash functions, 222
ToyHash algorithm, 222
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, 278
hieroglyphs, 2
Hill cipher, 39, 40
horizontal line shift coding, 272
Horner’s algorithm, 232
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