INDEX 331 induction, 63 inverse modular, 85 inverse function, 85, 108 invertible, 40 Jewels, 12 Jigsaw, 285 Kasiski test, 102 Kepler conjecture, 261 key, 270 key escrow, 13 keystream, 34 KidRSA, 181 known-plaintext attack, 127 lattice, 260 least significant bit, 273 LEDs, 279 letter swap, 19 LFSRsum, 145 Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR), 139 links, 173 log laws, 315 logarithm, 315 loops, 173 LSB, 273 Lucifer, 13 MAC, 277 masking, 275 matrices, 40 maximum distance, 248 meet-in-the-middle, 163 microdots, 276 Miller–Rabin primality test, 304 test, 302, 304 minimum distance, 248 modular inverse, 85 modulo, 27 modulo arithmetic, 27 modulus, 27 Monster group, 261 Monte Carlo algorithm, 300, 302 muddle, 159 multiplication cipher, 109 multiplicativity of combinations, 54 Navajo Indians, 9 nodes, 173 nomenclators, 5 nontrivial proper divisor, 29 notches, 65 null ciphers, 272 odd part, 303 one-time pad, 122 Operation Torch, 51 order element, 307 package, 270 parity, 244 Patton, George S., 51 payload, 270 perfect code, 174 perfect code cryptosystem, 177 clumping, 177 private key, 177 perfect security, 123 perfect squares, 198 permutation, 37 PGP, 13 pigeon-hole principle, 224, 234 plaintext, 24 PNT, 197 polynomial-time algorithm, 305 Pretty Good Privacy, 13 primality test AKS, 308 Fermat’s little Theorem, 299, 300 Miller–Rabin, 304 prime, 29, 192 prime number theorem, 197, 293 proof by contradiction, 193, 195 proofs by induction, 73 base case, 73 inductive step, 73 proper divisor, 29 property PC, 300 Purple, 11 quantum computing, 285 quantum cryptography, 14 quantum key distribution, 14 qubits, 279 recursion, 23 recursive, 23 reduces, 27 reduction, 27 reflector, 65 Rejewski, Marion, 68

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