INDEX 331

induction, 63

inverse

modular, 85

inverse function, 85, 108

invertible, 40

Jewels, 12

Jigsaw, 285

Kasiski test, 102

Kepler conjecture, 261

key, 270

key escrow, 13

keystream, 34

KidRSA, 181

known-plaintext attack, 127

lattice, 260

least significant bit, 273

LEDs, 279

letter swap, 19

LFSRsum, 145

Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR),

139

links, 173

log laws, 315

logarithm, 315

loops, 173

LSB, 273

Lucifer, 13

MAC, 277

masking, 275

matrices, 40

maximum distance, 248

meet-in-the-middle, 163

microdots, 276

Miller–Rabin

primality test, 304

test, 302, 304

minimum distance, 248

modular inverse, 85

modulo, 27

modulo arithmetic, 27

modulus, 27

Monster group, 261

Monte Carlo algorithm, 300, 302

muddle, 159

multiplication cipher, 109

multiplicativity of combinations, 54

Navajo Indians, 9

nodes, 173

nomenclators, 5

nontrivial proper divisor, 29

notches, 65

null ciphers, 272

odd part, 303

one-time pad, 122

Operation Torch, 51

order

element, 307

package, 270

parity, 244

Patton, George S., 51

payload, 270

perfect code, 174

perfect code cryptosystem, 177

clumping, 177

private key, 177

perfect security, 123

perfect squares, 198

permutation, 37

PGP, 13

pigeon-hole principle, 224, 234

plaintext, 24

PNT, 197

polynomial-time algorithm, 305

Pretty Good Privacy, 13

primality test

AKS, 308

Fermat’s little Theorem, 299, 300

Miller–Rabin, 304

prime, 29, 192

prime number theorem, 197, 293

proof by contradiction, 193, 195

proofs by induction, 73

base case, 73

inductive step, 73

proper divisor, 29

property PC, 300

Purple, 11

quantum computing, 285

quantum cryptography, 14

quantum key distribution, 14

qubits, 279

recursion, 23

recursive, 23

reduces, 27

reduction, 27

reflector, 65

Rejewski, Marion, 68