332 INDEX relatively prime, 29, 90 Room 40, 8 rotors, 64 RSA, 13, 214, 216 problem, 230 theorem, 229 running key cipher, 120 S-box, 160 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) SHA-1, 225 seed, 140 self-loops, 204 sifr, 4 signature, 21 signatures, 220 simple, 204 sphere packings, 260 Stager cipher, 7 steganography, 13, 20, 269 stego-function, 270 stego-object, 270 still images, 273 Strassen algorithm, 208, 233 stream ciphers, 138 substitution alphabet ciphers, 22 Sudoku puzzles, 275 symmetric ciphers, 171 text extraction, 285 totient function, 215, 236, 305 ToyHash, 222 transmit, 21 transparencies, 283 transposition, 48 trap-door functions, 294 triangle inequality, 253 Turing, Alan, 70 twin primes, 197 Ultra, 11, 52 unit, 29, 192 Universal Product Code (UPC) symbols, 257 valid encryption scheme, 21, 22 Verhoeff, Jacobus, 259 vertical line shift coding, 272 vertices, 173 Vigen` ere cipher, 34 Kasiski test, 102 keystream, 34 winnowing, 277 XOR, 137 Zimmerman telegram, 8

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