viii Contents
Chapter 49. Is Every Even Number the Sum of Two
Primes? 188
Chapter 50. Why We Invert Conditional Probabilities
Incorrectly 192
Chapter 51. Millionaire or Billionaire? 196
Chapter 52. Mathematics and Chess 199
Chapter 53. “The Book of Nature Is Written in the
Language of Mathematics” 202
Chapter 54. The Search for Mersenne Primes 206
Chapter 55. Berlin, Eighteenth Century: A Beautiful
Formula Is Discovered 210
Chapter 56. The First Really Complicated Number 213
Chapter 57. P = NP: In Mathematics, Is Luck Sometimes
Unnecessary? 216
Chapter 58. Happy 32nd Birthday! 219
Chapter 59. Buffon’s Needle 222
Chapter 60. Running Hot and Cold: Controlled Cooling
Solves Optimization Problems 226
Chapter 61. Who Didn’t Pay? 230
Chapter 62. What Can Statistics Tell Us? 233
Chapter 63. Arbitrage 236
Chapter 64. Farewell to Risk: Options 239
Chapter 65. Is Mathematics a Reflection of the World? 242
Chapter 66. Mathematics That You Can Hear 246
Chapter 67. Chance as Composer 251
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