Those Fascinating Numbers 9
the second number n (and possibly the largest) such that n3 + 1 is a powerful
number (a number is said to be powerful (or squarefull) if p|n implies that p2|n);
the smallest number satisfying this property10 is n = 2;
one of the nine known numbers k such that 11 . . . 1
k
is prime (see the number 19);
the largest number which cannot be written as the sum of two non square-free
numbers (see the number 933 for a more general problem).
24
the only number n 1 such that
12 +22
+. .
.+n2
is a perfect square (E. Lucas,
1873) (see the number 70);
the smallest number m such that equation σ(x) = m
has11
exactly three solu-
tions, namely 14, 15 and 23;
the sixth number n such that τ (n) = φ(n) (see the number 8);
the smallest solution of σ2(n) = σ2(n + 2) (see the number 1 079);
the smallest number with at least two digits, having all its digits different from
1 and 0, and whose sum of digits, as well as the product of its digits, divides
n: the sequence of numbers satisfying this property begins as follows: 24, 36,
224, 432, 624, 735, 2232, 3276, 4224, 6624, 23328, 32832, 33264, 34272, 34992,
42336, 42624, 43632, 73332, 82944, 83232, 92232, 93744, . . .
25
the only odd perfect square = 1 which is not the sum of three perfect squares
= 0 (see E. Grosswald [99], Chapter 3);
the only perfect square which when increased by 2 yields a cube:
52
+ 2 =
33;
the number of prime numbers 100.
10One
can easily prove that if the abc Conjecture is true, then there is only a finite number of
numbers satisfying this property.
11K. Ford & S. Konyagin [82] proved a conjecture of Sierpinski according to which, for each k 2,
there exists a number m such that equation σ(x) = m has exactly k solutions x. Later, K. Ford
[83] proved that this result is also valid for the Euler φ function; moreover, this time, the proof
also reveals that for each k 2, there exist infinitely many m’s such that φ(x) = m has exactly k
solutions in x.
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