Select Proceedings of ICRIDME 2018

Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering

B. B. Biswal, Bikash Kumar Sarkar, P. Mahanta Editors

Contents

Fluid Mechanics

The Effect of Resting Time on the Shedding of a Drop 3

Rahul Goswami, Lukesh Kumar Mahato and Deepak Kumar Mandal

Impact of Palm Oil Methyl Ester Drops on a Surface . 13

Vikas Kumar, Ramesh Kumar Singh and Deepak Kumar Mandal

Successive Impact of Two Drops on Surfaces with Various

Wettability 21

Amrit Kumar, Abhishek Singh and Deepak Kumar Mandal

CFD Analysis of Responses of Two-Equation Turbulence Models

for Flow over NACA 0012, NACA 4412 and S809 Aerofoils 31

S. Sahoo and S. Maity

Linear Instability Analysis of Viscous Planar Liquid Sheet

Sandwiched Between Two Moving Gas Streams . 41

Debayan Dasgupta, Sujit Nath and Dipankar Bhanja

Flow Analysis of Vortex Generators in the Shroud of a Horizontal

Axis Wind Turbine 51

S. Sharma, S. Anand and Koushik Das

A Coupled Level Set and Volume-of-Fluid Method for Modeling

Two-Phase Flows . 65

H. Deka, G. Biswas and A. Dalal

A Novel Passive Flow Control Method for Underwater Vehicles . 75

R. Kant and S. Maity

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer

by a Turbulent Air Jet Impingement on a Flat Surface 85

Yatish Kumar Baghel and Vivek Kumar Patel

xiA Study on the Wake Regime Control and Drag Reduction Using

Single Splitter Plate for a Flow Past a Semicircular Cylinder . 97

S. M. Dash, S. D. Chavda and K. B. Lua

Numerical Analysis of Wall Shear Stress Parameters of Newtonian

Pulsatile Blood Flow Through Coronary Artery and Correlation

to Atherosclerosis . 107

Abdulrajak Buradi and Arun Mahalingam

Effect of Thickness of Porous Layer on Thermo-Hydraulic

Characteristics and Entropy Generation in a Partially

Porous Wavy Channel . 119

Debayan Bhowmick, Pitambar R. Randive and Sukumar Pati

Computational Study of Slot Jet Impingement Heat Transfer

on a Combined Dimpled and Protruded Concave Surface 131

Alankrita Singh and B. V. S. S. S. Prasad

Numerical Study of Coaxial Evacuated Tube Collector

with Nano-fluid . 145

B. R. Tamuli, Sujit Nath and Dipankar Bhanja

Materials and Manufacturing

Optimization of Microwave Power and Reinforcement

in Microwave-Cured Coir/HDPE Composites 159

Manoj Kumar Singh, Nishant Verma, Nayan Pundhir, Sunny Zafar

and Himanshu Pathak

Design and Simulation Study of HPDC for Automotive

Parts—Pinion Housing Based on ADSTFEAN Simulation

System . 171

Sunil Kumar and Lokeswar Patnaik

Conceptualization of a Machining Fixture for Machining Cylinder

Block on a Horizontal Machining Center . 185

Lokeswar Patnaik, Saikat Ranjan Maity and Sunil Kumar

Multi-scale Computational Analysis of Carbon-Nanotube–Polymer

Composite . 205

Gaurav Arora and Himanshu Pathak

Comparative Study of Some Machining Characteristics During Hard

Turning of Alloy Steel with Untreated and Cryotreated Cermet

Inserts . 217

Anshuman Das, S. K. Patel, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

and R. N. Mahapatra

xii ContentsProcess Parameters Optimization of EDMed Surface

of Titanium-Grade-4 Alloy Using Topsis Coupled

with Taguchi Philosophy . 227

Dipraj Banik, Rahul, Himanshu Ranjan Sinha and Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

Analytical Study for Enhancing Gear Performance Using Al2O3

Paint Coating 235

Himanshu Ranjan Sinha, Rahul, Dipraj Banik and Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

Ballistic Impact Response of HDPE/UHMWPE Polymer

Composite . 245

Nayan Pundhir, Gaurav Arora, Himanshu Pathak and Sunny Zafar

PCA-GRA Integrated Multi Response Optimization of Wire-Cut

EDM of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy for Sustainable Production . 257

D. Devarasiddappa and M. Chandrasekaran

Investigating Weldability in Microalloyed Al Alloys . 271

Sanjib Banerjee, Rakesh Bhadra, Sanjib Gogoi and Ravi shankar Dutta

Thermomechanical Analysis of Al-7075 to Predict Residual Stresses

by Using 3D Finite Element Simulation 281

Ankit Saxena and Ravindra K. Saxena

Application of Nitriding Treatments on EN 3 and EN 24 Steels

for Rotating Bending Fatigue Resistance . 295

Vinay Jayashankar Varier, Sachin Suresh Barve

and Sachin Shankarrao Naik

Finite Element Based Prediction of Transient Temperature

Distribution, Heat Affected Zone and Residual Stresses

in AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldment 307

Gurdeep Singh, Ravindra K. Saxena and Sunil Pandey

Isogeometric FE Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates 321

N. Devi, A. Bhar and R. Pandey

Investigation of Weld Bead Characteristics and Optimization

of GMAW of Nitrogen Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel

(AISI 201Gr) 333

Vivek Singh, M. Chandrasekaran and Sutanu Samanta

Two-Dimensional Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Laser

Parameters on Laser Indirect Machining of Glass 347

Upasana Sarma and Shrikrishna N. Joshi

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modelling of Temperature Profiles

on the Wire Electrode During Wire Electric Discharge Machining

Process . 359

Jitendra Kumar, Sanghamitra Das and Shrikrishna N. Joshi

Contents xiiiSynthesis and Responsive Study of Tensile and Flexural Properties

of Bamboo Filler Based Functionally Graded Composite . 373

Rahul Kumar, Gaurav Kumar and Sumit Bhowmik

A Study on the Effect of Micro-alloying of Titanium in 2xxx

Aluminium Alloy . 385

Manash Bhuyan, Arnab Saikia and Anil Borah

A Study of Effect of Micro-alloying of Tin on Ageing Behaviour

of 6xxx Series Aluminium Alloys . 397

Monoj Baruah, Anjali Ladha, Manish Baruah, Arnav Kar, Agradeep Deb

and Anil Borah

A Brief Review of White Layer Formation in Hard Machining

with a Case Study 407

Sanjib Kr Rajbongshi, D. K. Sarma and Meinam Annebushan Singh

Effect of µEDM Milling Process Parameters on Surface Roughness

During Machining Ti–6Al–4V . 419

Basil Kuriachen and Jose Mathew

Analysis of Chip Formation of AISI 52100 Steel During Hard

Turning with Newly Developed HSN2 Coated Carbide Insert . 429

Anupam Alok and Manas Das

Minimization of Transportation Cost of Paraffin Wax:

A Proposed Approach Using C 439

Priyanka Hazarika and Chinmoy S. Kalita

Evaluation of Dry Sliding Wear Properties of Stir Cast

AA7050/10B4C Composites Through Fuzzy-ARAS 449

Arvind Kumar and Ram Naresh Rai

Investigation of Machining Capabilities of 2.5 vol. % MWCNT

Al2O3 Composites in µ-EDM 459

Meinam Annebushan Singh, Deba Kumar Sarma, Sanjib Kr Rajbongshi,

Ondrej Hanzel and Pavol Sajgalik

Microstructure and Microhardness Characteristics of TiC–TiN

Ceramics Coating by TIG Process on Mild Steel . 467

Anjani Kumar, Rana Kumar Singh, Rahul Rathore and Anil Kumar Das

Microstructural Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Fiber Laser

Weldments 475

Chandan Kumar and Manas Das

Drilling Analysis of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid

Composites Fabricated by Hot Compression Moulding 487

M. Roy Choudhury and Kishore Debnath

xiv ContentsParametric Study of Photochemical Machining of Aluminium

Using Taguchi Approach . 497

Rashed Mustafa Mazarbhuiya and Maneswar Rahang

Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Tensile and Wear Properties

of Flax Fiber-Reinforced Composites 505

Naveen Kumar, P. Avinash, Abhishek Singh and Kishore Debnath

Exploration of MOORA Based Hybrid Taguchi Method

for Multi-response Optimization—A Case Study . 515

Rajesh Kumar Verma, Prakhar Kumar Kharwar, Arpan Kumar Mondal,

Kumar Abhishek and Jogendra Kumar

Drilling an Array of Square Micro-holes Using Micro-EDM 527

Tapas Debnath and Promod Kumar Patowari

Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing of Ferromagnetic Air Compressor

Cylinder Using Smart MR Polishing Fluid 539

Kunal Sharma, Ambrish Singh, Anwesa Barman and Manas Das

Induction of Conditioning Gas and Its Optimization

in Nonconventional Plasma Machining Process of Fused Silica 549

Krishna Enni, D. Sam Dayala Dev and Manas Das

Design and Fabrication of Electrochemical MicroMachining

(ECMM) Experimental Setup for Micro-hole Drilling . 561

Pranesh Dutta, Anwesa Barman, Abhinav Kumar and Manas Das

Factor Effect on Crater Shapes in Electrical Discharge

Machining 575

Jibin T. Philip, Basil Kuriachen and Jose Mathew

Drilling of Micro-holes in Titanium Using Micro-EDM:

A Parametric Investigation 589

Siddhartha Kar, Pallab Sarmah, Binoy Kumar Baroi

and Promod Kumar Patowari

Effects of Kingpin and Caster Offset on Braking Stability

of Long Wheelbase Bus 601

Sagar Jambukar and C. Sujatha

Shear Behaviour of the Delaminated Glass Fibre Reinforced

Composite Laminates 617

Mashun Vashum, Subhankar Roy and Tanmoy Bose

Parametric Optimization of Process Parameters in WEDM

of AISI 316 Stainless Steel 627

Samir Kumar Bose, Suprakash Patra, Arnab Kundu

and Prasanta Kumar Bardhan

Contents xvNumerical Study of Welding Distortion in SAW Welded Creep

Strength Enhanced Ferrite Steel Joint . 641

Saurav Suman and Pankaj Biswas

Finite Element Analysis of Patient-Specific Femur Bone for Synthetic

Biomaterials . 649

Navneet Khare, Gorang Sharma and Yashwant Kumar Modi

Investigation of Microstructural and Mechanical Properties

of Magnesium Matrix Hybrid Composite . 661

Naveen Kumar, Ajaya Bharti and Hariom Tripathi

Investigations of Mechanical Properties of Copper Matrix

Hybrid Composite 671

Deepak Kumar, Ajaya Bharti, Syed Mohd Azam, Naveen Kumar

and Hariom Tripathi

Effect of Tool Rotation on Microstructure and Hardness of AZ31

Mg Alloy Processed by FSP . 677

Hariom Tripathi, Ajaya Bharti, Ankur Vishal and Naveen Kumar

Thermal Engineering

Experimental Investigation of Forced Convective Cooling

of Rectangular Blocks . 687

Krishna Roy, Asis Giri and Maibam Romio Singh

Conduction-Based Standardization of K-Type Coaxial

Thermocouple for Short-Duration Transient Heat Flux

Measurement 699

Sanjeev Kumar Manjhi, Rakesh Kumar and Digvijaysinh Barad

Performance Analysis of a Coal-Fired Open Cycle MHD Plant

at Constant Subsonic Inlet Nozzle Mach Number with Variation

in Nozzle–Area Ratio 709

Prabin Haloi and Tapan Kumar Gogoi

A Simplified Approach for the Rapid Evaluation of Thermodynamic

Properties of Saturated Water and Steam 717

Amrit Chatterjee and Bijan Kumar Mandal

Prediction of Moisture Ratios (MRs) During Fluidized Bed Drying

of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Cubes by Using Mathematical

Modeling and Experimental Validation 729

Prasanta Majumder, Abhijit Sinha, Laxman Mishra and Rajat Gupta

Performance and Emission Characteristics of Variable Compression

Ratio (VCR) Engine Using Different Biofuels—A Review 741

Dipankar Saha and Abhijit Sinha

xvi ContentsHydrodynamics of a CFB Gasifier with Two Different Cross

Sections in the Riser . 753

Prabhansu, S. Ganguli, Krishna Kant Dwivedi, P. Chandra,

M. K. Karmakar and P. K. Chatterjee

Thermodynamic Analysis of Irreversible Reversed Brayton

Cycle Heat Pump with Finite Capacity Finite Conductance

Heat Reservoirs 763

Raghav Mundhra and Achintya Mukhopadhyay

Indian Sub-bituminous and Low-Rank Coal Gasification

Experiments in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier Under Air

Atmosphere . 777

Krishna Kant Dwivedi, Prabhansu, A. K. Pramanick, M. K. Karmakar

and P. K. Chatterjee

Thermal Model for Temperature Control of Building Subjected

to Variable Solar Radiation . 785

S. Sukumar, Abhijit Sinha and S. P. Kar

Performance Analysis of Mixed Convection in T-Shaped Geometry

for Entropy Generation Using Lattice Boltzmann Method 797

Arupjyoti Das and Shikha Bhuyan

Analytical Model for Tri-Dimensional Fourier Bioheat Transfer

Encountered in Regional Hyperthermia 809

Jaideep Dutta and Balaram Kundu

A Comparative Evaluation of Combustion Characteristics of Strut

and Wall Injection Technique in a Cavity-Based Scramjet

Combustor 823

Lakka Suneetha, Pitambar R. Randive and Krishna Murari Pandey

Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Turbulence Models

on Prediction of Flow Characteristics of a Scramjet Combustor . 835

Lakka Suneetha, Pitambar R. Randive and Krishna Murari Pandey

Effect of Varying Oblique Angle on Heat Transfer Enhancement

in Oblique Channel . 845

Badyanath Tiwary, Ritesh Kumar and Pawan K. Singh

Performance Analysis of Split-Drop-Shaped Pin Fins for Improved

Heat Transfer Rate 857

Alok Ranjan, Surender Singh Yadav and Koushik Das

Simulation of Fully Developed Flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy

Channels Using OpenFOAM 869

S. Harikrishnan and Shaligram Tiwari

Contents xviiNumerical Analysis of Different Arrangement of Square Pin-Fin

Microchannel Heat Sink 879

Prabhakar Bhandari and Yogesh Kumar Prajapati

Exact Analytical Determination of Nusselt Number for Flow

Through a Microchannel Under Electric and Magnetic Field . 893

Sujit Saha and Balaram Kundu

Thermodynamic Analysis of a 500-MWe Subcritical Coal-Fired

Thermal Power Plant with Solar-Aided Post-Combustion CO2

Capture 907

Rajesh Kumar, Ravi Anand and Sujit Karmakar

Performance Analysis of LPG Cook Stoves with Modifications 921

Dhananjay Singh Yadav and Bireswar Paul

Parametric Study of Wavy Microchannel Using Nanofluid . 931

Ritesh Kumar, Badyanath Tiwary and Pawan K. Singh

Bed Hydrodynamics of Fluidized Bed Paddy Drying:

An Experimental Study 941

Binayak Pattanayak, Siba Shankar Mohapatra and Harish Chandra Das

Experimental Studies on Energy Conservation in Pool Boiling

Heat Transfer Using Eco-friendly Additive . 949

Sameer S. Gajghate, Anil R. Acharya and Swapan Bhaumik

Thermal Analysis and Estimation of Tumor Properties

in Breast Tissue 963

Souradeep Bhowmick, Raghavendra Gupta and Koushik Das

Simulation of Emission from Coal-Fired Power Plant . 975

Pruthiviraj Nemalipuri, Harish Chandra Das and Malay Kumar Pradhan

Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

in Mini-channel Heat Sink with Interconnecting Channels 987

Vasujeet Singh, Harish Chandra Das and Pruthiviraj Nemalipuri

Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis in Falling

Film Absorber . 1001

H. Barman and R. S. Das

Identification of Maximum Stressed Region in Hip Prosthesis . 1013

R. Patra, Harish Chandra Das, J. Sahoo and Sk. Md. Ali

Thermal Performance of Heat Pipe with PCM Jacket . 1021

Virendra Vishnu Bhagwat and Biplab Das

New Approach for Determining Fin Performances of an Annular

Disc Fin with Internal Heat Generation 1033

Tanmoy Majhi and Balaram Kundu

xviii ContentsCFD-Based Study on Thermal and Fluid Flow Dynamics Due

to Miller Teeth Shaped Ribs Over Absorber Plate of Solar Air

Collector 1045

P. J. Bezbaruah, R. S. Das and Bikash Kumar Sarkar

Natural Convective Heat Transfer from an Inclined Isothermal

Fin Array . 1055

Krishna Roy, Biplab Das and Subhrajit Dutta

Vibration and Acoustics

Design of Inertial Class Gyroscope Resonator with Ultrahigh

Quality Factor for Interplanetary Space Missions 1071

N. Gireesh Sharma, Arun George, S. Paul Pandian, T. Sundararajan

and Sachin Singh Gautam

Experimental Study on Vibration Analysis of a Needle Roller

Bearing Using Various Grades of Lubricant Viscosity . 1085

Praveen Sharma, Subhas Chandra Rana and Rabindra Nath Barman

Multi-directional Sound Reduction by Slitted Sonic Crystal . 1099

Preeti Gulia and Arpan Gupta

A Novel Passive Mechanism to Improve Induced Strain in Two-DOF

Piezoelectric Energy Harvester . 1109

Kote Suresh, K. Shankar and C. Sujatha

Cepstrum Analysis of Instantaneous Angular Speed for Gearbox

Fault Detection . 1117

Sankar K. Roy, A. R. Mohanty and C. S. Kumar

Combustion Detection in IC Engine by Analysis of Instantaneous

Angular Acceleration 1127

Sankar K. Roy and A. R. Mohanty

Identification of Nonlinear Structural Parameters Using Combined

Power Flow and Acceleration Matching Approaches 1139

R. Anish and K. Shankar

Finite Element Analysis of Buckling, Free Vibration and Flexure

of Clamped Laminated Composite Plates in Variable Thermal

Environment . 1151

Ranjan K. Behera, Nitin Sharma and S. K. Parida

Detection of Local Defect Resonance Frequencies for Defect

Imaging: A Nonlinear Ultrasound-Based Approach . 1163

Subhankar Roy, Tanmoy Bose and Kishore Debnath

Contents xixNumerical Assessment of Fatigue Life for Concrete Column 1173

Moinul Haq, Tabassum Naqvi and Suresh Bhalla

Non-linear Analysis of Rotational Inertial Double-Tuned Mass

Damper by Harmonic Balance Method 1183

S. Mohanty, S. Sikder and S. K. Dwivedy

Comparative Study of Performance of Optimized Valve for Different

Flow Indices of Rheological Model 1191

Keshav Manjeet and C. Sujatha

Static Stability Investigation of an Asymmetric Sandwich Beam

in Temperature Environment 1203

Dipesh Kumar Nayak and Pusparaj Dash

Renewable Energy

Thermo-economic Study of Phase Change Materials (PCMs)

for Thermal Energy Storage . 1217

Laxman Mishra, Abhijit Sinha and Rajat Gupta

Comparative Analysis of Absorber Tubes of Parabolic Trough Solar

Collector Using Therminol VP-1 as Heat Transfer Fluid . 1227

Suresh Vishwakarma, Biplab Kumar Debnath, Kishore Debnath

and Biplab Das

Exergy Analysis of a Variable Compression Ratio Engine Operated

on Diesel and Pine Seed Oil Biodiesel Blends 1241

Shivendra P. Singh and Biplab Kumar Debnath

Solar Resource Assessment Using GHI Measurements at a Site

in Northeast India 1253

A. Maisanam, B. Podder, K. K. Sharma and Agnimitra Biswas

Computational Analysis of Internally Grooved Absorber Tubes

of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Constant Mass Flow Rate

of the Heat Transfer Fluid 1267

Suresh Vishwakarma, Prabina Kumar Meher, Biplab Kumar Debnath

and Kishore Debnath

Effect of Size and Cascading of Receivers on the Performance

of a Solar Collector System . 1281

Suraj Bhardwaj and Santosh Bopche

Experimental Investigation of Solar Powered Vapor Compression

Air Conditioner with Indian Climatic Condition . 1291

Susant Kumar Sahu, N. Sendhil Kumar and T. Ganapathy

xx ContentsFeasibility of Wind Energy as Power Generation Source at Shillong

(Meghalaya) . 1303

Syed Mujibur Rahman, Himadri Chattopadhyay and Romesh Laishram

Computational Analysis of Sensible Energy Storage

for Low-Temperature Application 1315

Sujit Roy, Biplab Das, Agnimitra Biswas and Biplab Kumar Debnath

Feasibility Study of Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV/T) Collector

in Assam (India) Using Polysun 1331

Dudul Das and Pankaj Kalita

An Analytical Investigation of Solar Water Heater Performance

During Winter Period in Jharkhand Region 1339

Anand M. Sharan, Manabendra Pathak and Manish Verma

Energy Saving Potential of an Air-Conditioning System

with Desiccant and Solar Assisted Ventilation . 1351

Gaurav Singh and Ranjan Das

Trapezoidal Approach to Establish One-Dimensional Analysis

of an Absorber Plate for Two-Dimensional Heat Flow . 1361

Jayanarayan Mahakud and Balaram Kundu

Heat Transfer Analysis of a Solar Air Heater Roughened

with Chamfered Rib and Groove Roughness on the Absorber

Plate Using CFD Approach . 1373

Amit Kumar, Apurba Layek and Partha Kumar Mondal

Study of LPG and Biogas Combustion in Two-Layer Porous

Radiant Burners (PRBs) 1385

Sangjukta Devi, Niranjan Sahoo and P. Muthukumar

Mathematical Modeling and Optimized Design Aspects of Secondary

Reflectors for Solar Parabolic Trough Collector 1393

Alka Bharti, Abhishek Mishra and Bireswar Paul

Adaptive Control of the Wind Turbine Transmission System

for Smooth Power Generation . 1411

Neeraj Kumar, Emanuel Khraw Mawsor and Bikash Kumar Sarkar

Parametric Optimization for Yield of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking

Oil Feedstock 1425

Uddipta Das and Prasanta Kumar Choudhury

Comparison of Various Solar Radiation Data Sources for Feasibility

Study of Parabolic Trough Collector Power Plant in Assam 1437

Pinku Kumar Goswami, Nabajit Dev Choudhury and Rupam Kataki

Contents xxiA Numerical Study on Microchannel Cooling

for Photovoltaic Cells 1447

Siddhant Mohapatra, Chanchal Gupta, Sujit Nath and Dipankar Bhanja

Robotics and Mechatronics

Spider Monkey Optimization Algorithm Based Collision-Free

Navigation and Path Optimization for a Mobile Robot

in the Static Environment . 1459

Kevin Pirewa Lagaza, Abhishek Kumar Kashyap and Anish Pandey

Kinematic and Dynamic Optimal Trajectory Planning of Industrial

Robot Using Multi-objective Ant Lion Optimizer . 1475

Amruta Rout, Golak Bihari Mahanta, Balamurali Gunji,

B. B. V. L. Deepak and Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

Type-1 Fuzzy Pulse Width Modulation Controlled Motion Planning

of Differential Drive 4-Wheeled Power Robot 1487

Sourabh Rajwade, Akhilesh Kumar Tiwari and Anish Pandey

Multi-Objective Design Optimization of a Bioinspired

Underactuated Robotic Gripper Using Multi-Objective

Grey Wolf Optimizer 1497

Golak Bihari Mahanta, Amruta Rout, Balamurali Gunji,

B. B. V. L. Deepak and Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

Implementation of Topological Derivative as an Evolutionary

Approach . 1511

Kandula Eswara Sai Kumar and Sourav Rakshit

Geodesic Approach for Trajectory Planning of Mobile Robot

Manipulators 1521

Pradip Kumar Sahu, Bijaya Kumar Khamari, Bunil Kumar Balabantaray,

Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal and Surya Narayan Panda

Electro-hydraulic Motion Tracking Control of a Hot MS Plate

of a Laboratory-Scale Reciprocating ROT 1533

Gaurav Kumar Mandal, Sohag Sutar, Anindya Datta

and Pranibesh Mandal

Path Planning of a Humanoid Robot Using Rule-Based

Technique . 1547

Manoj Kumar Muni, Priyadarshi Biplab Kumar, Dayal R. Parhi,

Asita Kumar Rath, Harish Chandra Das, Animesh Chhotray,

Krishna Kant Pandey and Kitty Salony

Automated Vehicles Path Modification for Designated Via-Point

Using Nonlinear Simplex Optimizer . 1555

L. B. Yadav and B. Halder

xxii ContentsZero-Speed Off-tracking Analysis of Tractor-Semitrailer with Split

Fifth Wheel Coupling for 90° and 180° Turning Manoeuvres . 1567

Ajith Jogi and Sujatha Chandramohan

Turbo Machinery

Derivation of Complete Performance Characteristics of a Low Head

Prototype Francis Turbine Using CFD . 1581

Gyanendra Tiwari, Vishnu Prasad, S. N. Shukla and Vivek Kumar Patel

Stress and Deformation Analysis of a Swash Plate Type Variable

Displacement Axial Piston Pump Through Solidworks

Environment . 1593

Abhisek Gupta, Nitesh Mondal and Rana Saha

Comparative Study of Stress Analysis for Three Bladed Underwater

Vehicle Propellers with Two Different Composite Materials . 1601

Pritam Majumder, Krishna Murari Pandey, Nishikant V. Deshpande

and Subhendu Maity

Recent Development and Application of the Hydrostatic

Transmission System 1613

Neeraj Kumar, Bikash Kumar Sarkar and Subhendu Maity

Active Power Control of the Francis Turbine System by Model-Free

Adaptive Controller . 1627

J. Vinod, Bikash Kumar Sarkar, Saikat Mookherjee and Dipankar Sanyal

Part VIII Experimental Aerodynamics

Design Procedure for a Blast Wave Generator and Its Validation

with Shock Tube Experiments . 1643

Santanu Dey, T. Murugan and Dipankar Chatterjee

A Feasibility Study of Superhydrophobic Coating on Al6061

for Airplane Anti-icing Applications . 1663

J. Bruce Ralphin Rose

Dynamic Calibration of Three-Component Accelerometer Force

Balance System Using Deconvolution 1675

Sushmita Deka, Pallekonda Ramesh Babu and Maneswar Rahang

Author Index . 1685

Contents xxiiiAbout the Editors

Author Index

A

Abhishek, Kumar, 515

Acharya, Anil R., 949

Ali, Sk. Md., 1013

Alok, Anupam, 429

Anand, Ravi, 907

Anand, S., 51

Anish, R., 1139

Arora, Gaurav, 205, 245

Avinash, P., 505

Azam, Syed Mohd, 671

B

Baghel, Yatish Kumar, 85

Balabantaray, Bunil Kumar, 1521

Banerjee, Sanjib, 271

Banik, Dipraj, 227, 235

Barad, Digvijaysinh, 699

Bardhan, Prasanta Kumar, 627

Barman, Anwesa, 539, 561

Barman, H., 1001

Barman, Rabindra Nath, 1085

Baroi, Binoy Kumar, 589

Baruah, Manish, 397

Baruah, Monoj, 397

Barve, Sachin Suresh, 295

Behera, Ranjan K., 1151

Bezbaruah, P. J., 1045

Bhadra, Rakesh, 271

Bhagwat, Virendra Vishnu, 1021

Bhalla, Suresh, 1173

Bhandari, Prabhakar, 879

Bhanja, Dipankar, 41, 145, 1447

Bhar, A., 321

Bhardwaj, Suraj, 1281

Bharti, Ajaya, 661, 671, 677

Bharti, Alka, 1393

Bhaumik, Swapan, 949

Bhowmick, Debayan, 119

Bhowmick, Souradeep, 963

Bhowmik, Sumit, 373

Bhuyan, Manash, 385

Bhuyan, Shikha, 797

Biswal, Bibhuti Bhusan, 217, 227, 235,

1475, 1497, 1521

Biswas, Agnimitra, 1253, 1315

Biswas, G., 65

Biswas, Pankaj, 641

Bopche, Santosh, 1281

Borah, Anil, 385, 397

Bose, Samir Kumar, 627

Bose, Tanmoy, 617, 1163

Bruce Ralphin Rose, J., 1663

Buradi, Abdulrajak, 107

C

Chandramohan, Sujatha, 1567

Chandra, P., 753

Chandrasekaran, M., 257, 333

Chatterjee, Amrit, 717

Chatterjee, Dipankar, 1643

Chatterjee, P. K., 753, 777

Chattopadhyay, Himadri, 1303

Chavda, S. D., 97

Chhotray, Animesh, 1547

Choudhury, M. Roy, 487

Choudhury, Nabajit Dev, 1437

Choudhury, Prasanta Kumar, 1425

D

Dalal, A., 65

Das, Anil Kumar, 467

Das, Anshuman, 217

Das, Arupjyoti, 797

Das, Biplab, 1021, 1055, 1227, 1315

Das, Dudul, 1331

Dasgupta, Debayan, 41

Das, Harish Chandra, 941, 975, 987, 1013,

1547

Dash, Pusparaj, 1203

Dash, S. M., 97

Das, Koushik, 51, 857, 963

Das, Manas, 429, 475, 539, 549, 561

Das, Ranjan, 1351

Das, R. S., 1001, 1045

Das, Sanghamitra, 359

Das, Uddipta, 1425

Datta, Anindya, 1533

Deb, Agradeep, 397

Debnath, Biplab Kumar, 1227, 1241, 1267,

1315

Debnath, Kishore, 487, 505, 1163, 1227,

1267

Debnath, Tapas, 527

Deepak, B. B. V. L., 1475, 1497

Deka, H., 65

Deka, Sushmita, 1675

Deshpande, Nishikant V., 1601

Devarasiddappa, D., 257

Dev, D. Sam Dayala, 549

Devi, N., 321

Devi, Sangjukta, 1385

Dey, Santanu, 1643

Dutta, Jaideep, 809

Dutta, Pranesh, 561

Dutta, Ravi shankar, 271

Dutta, Subhrajit, 1055

Dwivedi, Krishna Kant, 753, 777

Dwivedy, S. K., 1183

G

Gajghate, Sameer S., 949

Ganapathy, T., 1291

Ganguli, S., 753

Gautam, Sachin Singh, 1071

George, Arun, 1071

Giri, Asis, 687

Gogoi, Sanjib, 271

Gogoi, Tapan Kumar, 709

Goswami, Pinku Kumar, 1437

Goswami, Rahul, 3

Gulia, Preeti, 1099

Gunji, Balamurali, 1475, 1497

Gupta, Abhisek, 1593

Gupta, Arpan, 1099

Gupta, Chanchal, 1447

Gupta, Raghavendra, 963

Gupta, Rajat, 729, 1217

H

Halder, B., 1555

Haloi, Prabin, 709

Hanzel, Ondrej, 459

Haq, Moinul, 1173

Harikrishnan, S., 869

Hazarika, Priyanka, 439

J

Jambukar, Sagar, 601

Jogi, Ajith, 1567

Joshi, Shrikrishna N., 347, 359

K

Kalita, Chinmoy S., 439

Kalita, Pankaj, 1331

Kant, R., 75

Kar, Arnav, 397

Karmakar, M. K., 753, 777

Karmakar, Sujit, 907

Kar, Siddhartha, 589

Kar, S. P., 785

Kashyap, Abhishek Kumar, 1459

Kataki, Rupam, 1437

Khamari, Bijaya Kumar, 1521

Khare, Navneet, 649

Kharwar, Prakhar Kumar, 515

Krishna Enni, 549

Kumar, Abhinav, 561

Kumar, Amit, 1373

Kumar, Amrit, 21

Kumar, Anjani, 467

Kumar, Arvind, 449

Kumar, Chandan, 475

Kumar, C. S., 1117

Kumar, Deepak, 671

Kumar, Gaurav, 373

Kumar, Jitendra, 359

Kumar, Jogendra, 515

Kumar, Kandula Eswara Sai, 1511

Kumar, Naveen, 505, 661, 671, 677

Kumar, Neeraj, 1411, 1613

Kumar, N. Sendhil, 1291

Kumar, Priyadarshi Biplab, 1547

Kumar, Rahul, 373Author Index 1687

Kumar, Rajesh, 907

Kumar, Rakesh, 699

Kumar, Ritesh, 845, 931

Kumar, Sunil, 171, 185

Kumar, Vikas, 13

Kundu, Arnab, 627

Kundu, Balaram, 809, 893, 1033, 1361

Kuriachen, Basil, 419, 575

L

Ladha, Anjali, 397

Lagaza, Kevin Pirewa, 1459

Laishram, Romesh, 1303

Layek, Apurba, 1373

Lua, K. B., 97

M

Mahakud, Jayanarayan, 1361

Mahalingam, Arun, 107

Mahanta, Golak Bihari, 1475, 1497

Mahapatra, R. N., 217

Mahato, Lukesh Kumar, 3

Maisanam, A., 1253

Maity, S., 31, 75

Maity, Saikat Ranjan, 185

Maity, Subhendu, 1601, 1613

Majhi, Tanmoy, 1033

Majumder, Prasanta, 729

Majumder, Pritam, 1601

Mandal, Bijan Kumar, 717

Mandal, Deepak Kumar, 3, 13, 21

Mandal, Gaurav Kumar, 1533

Mandal, Pranibesh, 1533

Manjeet, Keshav, 1191

Manjhi, Sanjeev Kumar, 699

Mathew, Jose, 419, 575

Mawsor, Emanuel Khraw, 1411

Mazarbhuiya, Rashed Mustafa, 497

Meher, Prabina Kumar, 1267

Mishra, Abhishek, 1393

Mishra, Laxman, 729, 1217

Modi, Yashwant Kumar, 649

Mohanty, A. R., 1117, 1127

Mohanty, S., 1183

Mohapatra, Siba Shankar, 941

Mohapatra, Siddhant, 1447

Mondal, Arpan Kumar, 515

Mondal, Nitesh, 1593

Mondal, Partha Kumar, 1373

Mookherjee, Saikat, 1627

Mukhopadhyay, Achintya, 763

Mundhra, Raghav, 763

Muni, Manoj Kumar, 1547

Murugan, T., 1643

Muthukumar, P., 1385

N

Naik, Sachin Shankarrao, 295

Naqvi, Tabassum, 1173

Nath, Sujit, 41, 145, 1447

Nayak, Dipesh Kumar, 1203

Nemalipuri, Pruthiviraj, 975, 987

P

Panda, Surya Narayan, 1521

Pandey, Anish, 1459, 1487

Pandey, Krishna Kant, 1547

Pandey, Krishna Murari, 823, 835, 1601

Pandey, R., 321

Pandey, Sunil, 307

Pandian, S. Paul, 1071

Parhi, Dayal R., 1547

Parida, S. K., 1151

Patel, S. K., 217

Patel, Vivek Kumar, 85, 1581

Pathak, Himanshu, 159, 205, 245

Pathak, Manabendra, 1339

Pati, Sukumar, 119

Patnaik, Lokeswar, 171, 185

Patowari, Promod Kumar, 527, 589

Patra, R., 1013

Patra, Suprakash, 627

Pattanayak, Binayak, 941

Paul, Bireswar, 921, 1393

Philip, Jibin T., 575

Podder, B., 1253

Prabhansu, 753, 777

Pradhan, Malay Kumar, 975

Prajapati, Yogesh Kumar, 879

Pramanick, A. K., 777

Prasad, B. V. S. S. S., 131

Prasad, Vishnu, 1581

Pundhir, Nayan, 159, 245

R

Rahang, Maneswar, 497, 1675

Rahman, Syed Mujibur, 1303

Rahul, 227, 235

Rai, Ram Naresh, 449

Rajbongshi, Sanjib Kr, 407, 459

Rajwade, Sourabh, 1487

Rakshit, Sourav, 15111688 Author Index

Ramesh Babu, Pallekonda, 1675

Rana, Subhas Chandra, 1085

Randive, Pitambar R., 119, 823, 835

Ranjan, Alok, 857

Rath, Asita Kumar, 1547

Rathore, Rahul, 467

Rout, Amruta, 1475, 1497

Roy, Krishna, 687, 1055

Roy, Sankar K., 1117, 1127

Roy, Subhankar, 617, 1163

Roy, Sujit, 1315

S

Saha, Dipankar, 741

Saha, Rana, 1593

Saha, Sujit, 893

Sahoo, J., 1013

Sahoo, Niranjan, 1385

Sahoo, S., 31

Sahu, Pradip Kumar, 1521

Sahu, Susant Kumar, 1291

Saikia, Arnab, 385

Sajgalik, Pavol, 459

Salony, Kitty, 1547

Samanta, Sutanu, 333

Sanyal, Dipankar, 1627

Sarkar, Bikash Kumar, 1045, 1411, 1613,

1627

Sarma, Deba Kumar, 407, 459

Sarmah, Pallab, 589

Sarma, Upasana, 347

Saxena, Ankit, 281

Saxena, Ravindra K., 281, 307

Shankar, K., 1109, 1139

Sharan, Anand M., 1339

Sharma, Gorang, 649

Sharma, K. K., 1253

Sharma, Kunal, 539

Sharma, N. Gireesh, 1071

Sharma, Nitin, 1151

Sharma, Praveen, 1085

Sharma, S., 51

Shukla, S. N., 1581

Sikder, S., 1183

Singh, Abhishek, 21, 505

Singh, Alankrita, 131

Singh, Ambrish, 539

Singh, Gaurav, 1351

Singh, Gurdeep, 307

Singh, Maibam Romio, 687

Singh, Manoj Kumar, 159

Singh, Meinam Annebushan, 407, 459

Singh, Pawan K., 845, 931

Singh, Ramesh Kumar, 13

Singh, Rana Kumar, 467

Singh, Shivendra P., 1241

Singh, Vasujeet, 987

Singh, Vivek, 333

Sinha, Abhijit, 729, 741, 785, 1217

Sinha, Himanshu Ranjan, 227, 235

Sujatha, C., 601, 1109, 1191

Sukumar, S., 785

Suman, Saurav, 641

Sundararajan, T., 1071

Suneetha, Lakka, 823, 835

Suresh, Kote, 1109

Sutar, Sohag, 1533

T

Tamuli, B. R., 145

Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar, 1487

Tiwari, Gyanendra, 1581

Tiwari, Shaligram, 869

Tiwary, Badyanath, 845, 931

Tripathi, Hariom, 661, 671, 677

V

Varier, Vinay Jayashankar, 295

Vashum, Mashun, 617

Verma, Manish, 1339

Verma, Nishant, 159

Verma, Rajesh Kumar, 515

Vinod, J., 1627

Vishal, Ankur, 677

Vishwakarma, Suresh, 1227, 1267

Y

Yadav, Dhananjay Singh, 921

Yadav, L. B., 1555

Yadav, Surender Singh, 857

Z

Zafar, Sunny, 159,

**كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Edited by

Maria Lyra Georgosopoulou

Contents

Foreword vii

Contributors ix

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Maria Lyra Georgosopoulou

Chapter 2 Image Formation in Nuclear Medicine 83

Nefeli Lagopati

Chapter 3 Nuclear Medicine Imaging Essentials 101

Nefeli Lagopati

Chapter 4 Methods of Imaging Reconstruction in Nuclear Medicine 127

Maria Argyrou

Chapter 5 Image Processing and Analysis in Nuclear Medicine 141

Antonios Georgantzoglou

Chapter 6 3D Volume Data in Nuclear Medicine . 183

Christos Chatzigiannis

Chapter 7 Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Imaging 191

Nefeli Lagopati

Chapter 8 Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Equipment 223

Maria Argyrou

Chapter 9 Introduction to MATLAB and Basic MATLAB

Processes for Nuclear Medicine .243

Marios Sotiropoulosvi Contents

Chapter 10 Morphology of Human Organs in Nuclear Medicine:

MATLAB Commands . 275

Elena Ttofi

Chapter 11 Internal Dosimetry by MATLAB in Therapeutic Nuclear

Medicine . 281

Nefeli Lagopati

Chapter 12 Pharmacokinetics in Nuclear Medicine/MATLAB Use 303

Nefeli Lagopati

Chapter 13 Nanotechnology in Nuclear Medicine/MATLAB Use 325

Nefeli Lagopati

Chapter 14 CASE Studies in Nuclear Medicine/MATLAB Approach 339

Stella Synefia, Elena Ttofi, and Nefeli Lagopati

List of Acronyms

List of Acronyms

A

AAPM American Association of Physicists in Medicine

ACR American College of Radiology

ADCs Analog-to-Digital Converters

ADME Absorption, Drug, Elimination and Metabolism

ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable

ANN Artificial Neural Network

ANZSNM Australian/New Zealand Standards

APDs Avalanche Photodiodes

ASICs Application-Specific Integrated Circuits

ASNC American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

B

BGO Bismuth Germanate Oxide

BREP Boundary Representation Phantom

BSS Basic Safety Standards

C

CAD Computer Aided Design

CAD Coronary Artery Disease

CASToR Customizable and Advanced Software for Tomographic Reconstruction

CDR Collimator–Detector Response

CMY Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow

CNN Convolutional Neural Network

CNTs Carbon NanoTubes

COR Center of Rotation

CRL Count Rate Loss

CRP Coordinated Research Projects

CT Computed Tomography

CYP Cytochrome P450s

CZT Cadmium Zinc Telluride

D

DAC Digital-to-Analogue Converters

DAT Dopamine Transporter

DCT Discrete Cosine Transform

DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine

DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung

DMSA DimercaptoSuccinic Acid

DSiPMs Digital Silicon Photomultipliers

DU Differential Uniformity

DVHs Dose-Volume Histograms360 List of acronyms

E

EANM European Association of Nuclear Medicine

EC European Commission

ECT Emission Computed Tomography

EFOMP European Federation of Organizations of Medical Physicists

EGS Electron Gamma Shower

EM Expectation-Maximization algorithm

EPR Enhanced Permeation and Retention

ESR European Society of Radiology

ET Essential Tremor

EU European Union

F

FBP Filtered Back Projection

FCM Fuzzy C-Means

FDA Food and Drug Administration

FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose

FFT Fast Fourier Transform

FMO Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase

FORTRAN Formula Translation

FOV Field of View

FT Fourier Transform

FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum

G

GAMOS GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulation

GEANT4 GEometry ANd Tracking

GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health

GUIDE Graphic User Interface Development Environment

GUI Graphical User Interface

H

HCC HepatoCellular Carcinoma

I

IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

IC Internal Conversion

ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection

ICRU International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements

IDL Interactive Data Language

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission

IOMP International Organization for Medical Physics

IPT Image Processing Toolbox

ISTR International Symposium on Trends in Radiopharmaceuticals

IU Integral UniformityList of acronyms 361

L

LDL Low-Density Lipoprotein

LET Linear Energy Transfer

LoG Laplacian of Gaussian

LOR Line of Response

LSD Line-Spread Function

M

MAbs Monoclonal Antibodies

MATLAB Matrix-Laboratory

MC Monte Carlo simulation

MCNP Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport

MCNPX Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended

MED Medical Exposure Directive

MINC Medical Imaging NetCDF

MIP Maximum Intensity Projection

MIRD Medical Internal Radiation Dose

MIRT Michigan Image Reconstruction Toolbox

MITA Medical Imaging and Technology Alliance

ML-EM Maximum Likelihood-Expectation Maximization

MnMEIO Md-doped Magnetism Engineered Iron Oxide

MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MTF Modulation Transfer Function

MWNT Multi-Walled Nano Tubes

N

NCA NonCompartmental Analysis

NCAT NURBS-based CArdiac-Torso (NCAT)

NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection

NECR Noise Equivalent Count Rate

NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NHL Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

NIfTI Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative

NIH National Institutes of Health

NMI Nuclear Medicine Imaging

NMQC Nuclear Medicine-QC

NURBS Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline

O

OLINDA/EXM Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modeling

OLINDA Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment

ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory

OS-EM Ordered Subsets-Expectation Maximization

P

PACS Picture Archiving and Communication System

PBPK Physiologically-Based PharmacoKinetic362 List of acronyms

PDE Photo-Detection Efficiency

PD Parkinson Disease

PET Positron Emission Tomography

PHA Pulse Height Analyzer

PK/PD PharmacoKinetic/PharmacoDynamic

PMT PhotoMultiplier Tubes

PSF Point Spread Functions

PVC Partial Volume Correction

PVE Partial Volume Effect

Q

QA Quality Assurance

QC Quality Control

QIN Quantitative Imaging Network

QM Quality Management

R

RADAR RAdiation Dose Assessment Resource

RGB Red-Green-Blue

RIT RadioImmunoTherapy

ROIs Region of Interest

S

SAF Specific Absorption Fraction

SEC Size-Exclusion Chromatography

SIMIND Simulation of Imaging Nuclear Detectors

SiPMs Silicon PhotoMultipliers

SIRF Synergistic Image Reconstruction Framework

SIRT Selective Internal Radiation Therapy

SNMMI Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

SNM Society of Nuclear Medicine

SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratios

SPECT Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

SSDL Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

SSM Statistical Shape Model

SSTR Somatostatin Receptors

STIR Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction

SUV Standard Uptake Value

SWNT Single-Walled Nano Tubes

T

TAC Time-Activity Curve

TARE Trans-Arterial Radio-Embolization

TCA TriChloroacetic Acid

TDCS Transmission-Dependent Convolution Subtraction

TEW Triple-Energy Window

TOF Time-of-Flight

TRT Targeted Radionuclide TherapyList of acronyms 363

U

UF University of Florida

V

VIM International Vocabulary of Metrology

VIP Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

VOI Volume of Interest

W

WHO World Health Organization

X

XCAT eXtended CArdiac-Torso

**كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Suseela Vappangi, Vakamulla Venkata Mani, Mathini Sellathurai

Contents

Preface .xiii

Authors .xvii

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO OWC-VLC .1

1.1 Current State-of-the-Art 1

1.2 History of the Origin of OWC 2

1.2.1 Advantages and Applications of OWC 5

1.3 Free Space Optical Wireless Communication 7

1.3.1 Advantages and Applications of FSOWC 9

1.3.2 Drawbacks Associated with FSO .11

1.4 Evolving and Introduction to Visible Light

Communication .12

1.5 Basic Architecture of VLC System Model .20

1.6 Significant Challenging Aspects of VLC .25

1.7 IEEE 802.15.7 Physical Layer Summary .26

1.8 IEEE 802:11 Light Communications Amendment-Task

Group “bb” .29

1.9 Comparisons between Radio Frequency-based Wireless

Communication and OWC 31

Chapter 2 VLC CHANNEL MODELS 35

2.1 Introduction .35

2.1.1 Review on Different Propagation Modes .35

2.2 Review on Photometry 37

2.2.1 Luminous Flux .38

2.2.2 Luminous Intensity 41

2.2.3 Illuminance 41

2.2.4 Lambert Radiator .42

2.3 Indoor VLC Channel Modeling 42

2.3.1 VLC Channel Modeling for the Single Source

Scenario 43

2.3.2 Channel Models for Multiple Sources .48

2.3.3 Signal to Noise Ratio Analysis 48

2.3.4 Other Parameters Associated with VLC 50

2.3.5 Illustration of the Distribution of Power and

SNR in Indoor VLC System 51

viiviii Contents

2.3.6 Review on Realistic Channel Model for VLC

Systems 56

2.4 Review on VLC Channel Models .59

2.4.1 Review on Indoor VLC Channel Characteristics

Modeled by Lee et al 66

2.4.2 Review on Diffuse Indoor Optical Wireless

Channel Modeled in Accordance to Rajbhandari et al 69

2.4.3 Review on Indoor VLC Channel Model Proposed by Ding De-qiang et al .70

2.4.4 Review on the Effect of Higher-Order Light Reflections on VLC Channel Modeling .71

2.4.5 Review on Integrated Sphere Model 74

2.5 Conclusion 75

Chapter 3 MODULATION FORMATS FOR VLC .77

3.1 Baseband Modulation Formats .78

3.1.1 ON-OFF-Keying (OOK)-based VLC Systems 78

3.1.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)-based VLC

Systems 82

3.1.3 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)-based VLC

Systems 84

3.2 State-of-the-art Multicarrier Modulation Formats Compatible for IM/DD Systems .87

3.2.1 Performance Analysis of Earliest Unipolar Optical OFDM Variants 88

3.2.2 On the Performance of Different Superposition

Optical OFDM Variants .112

3.2.3 Performance Analysis of Different Hybrid Optical OFDM Variants 121

3.2.4 Other Multicarrier Modulation Formats 133

3.2.4.1 Complexity involved in the computation of Hermitian symmetry criteria 133

3.2.4.2 Performance analysis of DHT-based

optical OFDM system 136

3.2.4.3 Performance analysis of DCT/DSTbased optical OFDM system .142

3.2.4.4 Performance analysis of Hadamard

Coded Modulation (HCM)-based optical OFDM 159

3.2.4.5 Wavelet packet division multiplexing

(WPDM)-based VLC system 160

3.2.5 Carrierless Amplitude and Phase Modulation .162Contents ix

3.2.5.1 Principle aspects of realization of

CAP-VLC systems 162

3.2.5.2 Multiband CAP (m-CAP)-based VLC

systems 167

3.2.5.3 Related work on m-CAP-VLC systems 169

3.2.5.4 Challenging aspects and mitigation

techniques associated with CAP-VLC

systems 177

3.2.5.5 Research aspects pertaining to CAPVLC Systems .193

3.2.6 Color Shift Keying .194

3.3 Conclusion 197

Chapter 4 NON-LINEARITIES OF OPTICAL SOURCES 199

4.1 Non-linearity in Optical Sources 199

4.2 PAPR Reduction Techniques for IM/DD Systems .201

4.3 PAPR Analysis in DCT/DST-based Multicarrier System .204

4.3.1 Performance Analysis of DCT/DST-based Spreading Techniques for PAPR Reduction .204

4.3.2 Exploitation of PTS Technique in DCT/DSTbased Optical OFDM .208

4.3.3 Clipping and Filtering 212

4.3.4 Performance Analysis of PAPR Reduction

Techniques in a DCT/DST-based Multicarrier

System 213

4.4 PAPR Analysis in Multiple Access Schemes for VLC .218

4.4.1 DST-based Multiple Access Schemes 220

4.4.2 Fast Optical IFDMA and Fast Optical LFDMA 223

4.4.3 Optical Interleaved Frequency Division Multiple Access 225

4.4.4 Optical Localized Frequency Division Multiple

Access 228

4.4.5 Performance Analysis of DCT/DST-based Multiple Access Schemes Compatible with IM/DD

Systems for VLC 229

4.5 Conclusion 239

Chapter 5 MULTIPLE ACCESS SCHEMES AND VLC FOR SMART

CITIES .241

5.1 Motivation .241

5.2 Review on Conventional and Emerging RF-based Mul-

5.3 Multiple Access Schemes for VLC 244

5.3.1 Design Aspects of VLC Systems .245

tiple Access Schemes 243x Contents

5.3.2 Optical Frequency Division Multiple Access 247

5.3.2.1 Related work on OOFDMA-VLC

systems 250

5.3.3 Optical Code Division Multiple Access 255

5.3.3.1 CDMA-based VLC systems comprising unipolar codes 256

5.3.3.2 CDMA-based VLC systems comprising bipolar codes .261

5.3.4 Optical Space Division Multiple Access .266

5.3.4.1 System model of optical SDMA

(OSDMA)-based VLC system exploiting angle diversity transmitter 267

5.3.4.2 Research efforts pertaining to OSDMAbased VLC system .275

5.3.5 Optical Non-orthogonal Multiple Access 277

5.3.5.1 Underlying principle of NOMA technology 278

5.3.5.2 Power allocation mechanisms

in ONOMA 280

5.3.5.3 MIMO-NOMA-based VLC system .285

5.3.5.4 Inter-cell interference mitigation in

NOMA-VLC systems 288

5.3.5.5 Interface of OMA schemes with

NOMA-VLC systems 290

5.3.5.6 State-of-the-art research aspects associated with NOMA-VLC systems 292

5.3.5.7 Challenges associated with NOMAVLC systems .300

5.4 Smart Cities Exploiting Visible Light Communication

Technology .303

5.5 Conclusion 309

Chapter 6 INTEGRATION OF VLC WITH PLC 313

6.1 Introduction .313

6.2 Basic System Model .316

6.3 PLC Channel Modeling 317

6.3.1 Power-Line Noise 319

6.3.2 VLC Channel Modeling .320

6.3.3 Analysis of Cascaded PLC-VLC Channel .321

6.3.4 State-of-the-art Research Efforts Associated

with PLC-VLC Channel Modeling 323

6.4 Performance of OFDM-based PLC-VLC System 323

6.5 On the Performance of DWT-based PLC-VLC System .326

6.6 Related Work on the Combination of PLC with VLC 327Contents xi

6.6.1 Efforts toward the Realization of an Integrated

PLC-VLC System with Minimal Modifications 328

6.6.2 Assurance of Multiuser Support 330

6.6.3 Review on the Hybrid PLC/VLC/RF Communication Systems .336

6.7 Applications of Integrated PLC-VLC Systems 339

6.7.1 Exploitation of PLC-VLC Systems for

HealthCare .339

6.7.2 Deployment of PLC-VLC Systems in Airplanes .343

6.7.3 Utilization of PLC-VLC Systems in Emergency

Areas 344

6.8 Conclusion 344

Chapter 7 VLC FOR VEHICULAR COMMUNICATIONS .347

7.1 Brief Overview .347

7.2 Exploitation of VLC in Vehicular Communications 349

7.2.1 On the Performance of RF-based Dedicated

Short Range Communication to Buttress V2V

Communication 349

7.2.2 VLC-based Vehicular Communication 353

7.3 Challenging Aspects of VLC Exploitation in Enabling

Vehicular Communications .359

7.3.1 Noise Emanating due to Artificial and Ambient

Light Sources .360

7.3.2 Assurance of Long Distance Communication .367

7.3.3 Development of Hybrid RF and VLC-based

Wireless Communication Networks for Vehicular Applications 371

7.3.4 Ensuring High Data Rate Vehicular Communications by Using Complex Multicarrier Modulation Formats 377

7.3.5 Augmenting Mobility of V2V Communications .380

7.3.6 Enabling Visible Light Positioning for Vehicular Applications 385

7.4 Performance of Car-to-Car VLC 393

7.4.1 Analysis of Noise in VLC-based Car-to-Car

Communication System .401

7.4.2 Performance of VLC-based Car-to-Car Communication System .402

7.5 Conclusion 403

Chapter 8

8.1 Exploitation of Organic Light Emitting Diodes for VLC

Applications 407

RESEARCH CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH VLC .407xii Contents

8.2 Synchronization Aspects .416

8.2.1 Mathematical Illustration of the Effects of FO 418

8.2.2 Mathematical Depiction of the Effects of STO

on the Performance of DCO-OFDM-based

VLC System .420

8.2.3 Interpretation of the Effects of Timing Offsets

in DCO-SC-FDMA-based IM/DD Systems 424

8.3 Impact of Timing Errors in DCO-SC-FDMA for VLC 431

8.4 Amalgamation of OLED-based VLC Systems for Automotive Applications 438

8.5 Flickering and Dimming Issues 439

8.6 Influence of Ambient Noise on the Performance of VLC

System .439

8.7 Research Challenges Associated with VLC in the

Emerging Area of Indoor Positioning .440

References .441

Index

Index

access points, 6

Amplify-and-forward, 333

amplitude shift keying, 31

angle of arrival, 387

artificial neural network, 60

Asymmetrically and symmetrically

clipping optical OFDM, 122

Asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM,

88

Asymmetrically DC-biased optical

OFDM, 122

asynchronous transfer mode, 162

augmented and virtual reality, 1

avalanche photodiode, 80

Axial Intensity, 41

balanced incomplete block design, 260

base station, 19

bipolar to unipolar, 256

bit error rate, 61

Bluetooth, 440

carrier sense multiple access with

collision detection, 255

carrierless amplitude and phase

modulation, 162

channel estimation, 93

code cycle modulation, 260

code division multiple access, 31

code domain NOMA, 243

coded-multilevel expurgated PPM, 260

color shift keying, 23

communication pixels, 368

conjugate-gradient backpropagation,

413

Control Channel, 351

convolutional codes, 28

cooperative adaptive cruise control, 372

cross-channel interference, 183

cyclic code-shift extension, 259

DC-biased optical OFDM, 88

decision feedback equalization, 4

decode-and-forward, 333

dedicated short range communications,

349

Department of Transportation, 349

Differential Overlapping PPM, 85

Differential PPM, 85

digital audio broadcasting, 87

digital subscriber lines, 87

digital video broadcasting, 87

direct detection, 20

discrete cosine transform, 142

discrete multitone modulation, 23

discrete sine transform, 143

discrete wavelet packet transform, 160

Distance Estimation via Asynchronous

Phase Shift, 389

Doppler Shift, 418

Enhanced ACO-OFDM, 112

enhanced evolutionary game theory, 255

Enhanced PAM-DMT, 112

enhanced sub-band index CAP, 192

Enhanced unipolar optical OFDM, 112

error vector magnitude, 254

Exhaustive Search Power Allocation,

280

Expurgated PPM, 85

fast optical OFDM, 142

fast Walsh-Hadamard transform , 159

Federal Communications Commission,

349

field of view, 24

fifth generation, 241

Fixed Power Allocation, 280

flickering, 25

Flip OFDM, 88

fluorescent lamps, 439

forward error correction, 27

fractional frequency reuse, 252

fractionally-spaced equalizers, 187

479480 Index

free space, 7

frequency division multiple access, 243

Frequency offset, 416

Gain Ratio Power Allocation, 280

Generalized enhanced unipolar OFDM,

112

generalized frequency division

multiplexing, 31

global positioning system, 385

global system for mobile, 241

Gold Sequences, 261

Hadamard Coded Modulation, 160

Hadamard matrices, 159

Hadamard transform, 159

half-beam angle, 41

hard threshold, 255

Hartley transform, 136

Hermitian Symmetry, 88

Heterogeneous Networks, 371

high definition television, 1

high pass filter, 166

Hilbert transform, 168

Hybrid Asymmetrically clipped OFDM,

122

IEEE 1901, 315

IEEE 802.11bb, 30

IEEE 802.11p, 349

IEEE 802.15.7, 13

IEEE 802.15.7r1, 35

Illuminance, 41

illumination, 21

image sensor, 20

incandescent lamps, 439

indium tin oxide, 408

indoor positioning systems, 440

infrared, 2

infrastructure to vehicle, 7

intelligent transportation system, 347

intensity modulation, 20

inter carrier interference, 416

interband interference, 176

interim standard, 241

internet of things, 5

intersymbol interference, 5

inverse discrete wavelet packet

transform, 160

inverse fast Fourier transform, 87

inverted GMPC, 259

ITU-T G.9960/61, 315

Japan Electronics and Information

Technology Industries

Association, 13

Lambert Radiator, 42

Laser Radar Visible Light Bidirectional

Communication Boomerang

System, 391

laser range finder, 384

Layered ACO-OFDM, 112

least mean square, 62

least square, 93

Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation,

413

light detection and ranging, 385

light emitting diodes, 5

line of sight, 8

linear equalizer, 194

linear feed forward equalization, 78

liquid crystal displays, 407

luminous efficiency, 40

luminous flux, 38, 41

luminous intensity, 41

M-ary phase shift keying, 87

M-ary pulse amplitude modulation, 87

M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation,

87

m-sequences, 261

machine-to-machine, 1

maximum flickering time period, 25

maximum likelihood, 243

maximum likelihood sequence

detection, 78

mean square error, 62

medium access control, 87

minimum mean square error, 93Index 481

modified Gold sequences, 261

modified prime sequence code, 259

modified Walsh-Hadamard sequences,

261

Multi-level EPPM, 85

multiband CAP, 162

multiple input multiple output, 16

Multipulse PPM, 85

multiuser superposition transmission,

244

narrow band PLC, 314

network assisted interference

cancellation and suppression,

244

non-coherent, 88

non-imaging concentrator, 45

non-line of sight, 21

non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward,

253

non-orthogonal multiband carrierless

and amplitude phase

modulation, 176

non-orthogonal multiple access, 242

nonreturn-to-zero, 80

Normalized Gain Difference Power

Allocation, 280

normalized LMS, 62

on-off keying, 5

optical code division multiple access,

242

optical communication image sensor,

368

optical orthogonal codes, 256

optical orthogonal frequency division

multiple access, 242

optical spatial division multiple access,

242

optical wireless communication, 2

optimised Lambertian order, 61

organic light emitting diodes, 407

orientation-based random waypoint, 255

orthogonal frequency division

multiplexing, 7

orthogonal multiple access, 243

Overlapping MPPM, 85

Overlapping PPM, 85

PAM-DMT-based hybrid optical

OFDM, 122

pattern division multiple access, 292

Phase modulation-DCO-OFDM, 122

phase shift keying, 31

photopic vision, 38

Poisson point process, 253

Polar-based OFDM, 121

positioning systems, 440

positive intrinsic negative photodiode,

20

power delay profile, 67

power domain NOMA, 243

Power Line Communication, 19

power spectral distribution, 67

prime codes, 256

Pulse amplitude modulated discrete

multi-tone modulation, 88

pulse amplitude modulation, 78

pulse modulation, 7

pulse position modulation, 78

pulse width modulation, 78

quality of service, 294

radio frequency, 1

radio frequency identification module,

440

random access point assignment, 255

random optical codes, 256

received signal strength, 391

Reconstructed LACO-OFDM, 122

red-green-blue-yellow, 194

Reed-Solomon, 28

repetition coding, 66

repetitive coded CAP, 191

Reverse Polarity optical OFDM, 121

road side units, 349

roll-off factor, 166

root mean square, 60

run length limited, 27482 Index

second generation, 241

Service Channel, 351

short message services, 241

signal to interference noise ratio, 245

single frequency network, 328

small molecule OLEDs, 408

solid angle, 41

solid state lighting, 17

sparse code multiple access, 292

spatial modulation, 66

spatial multiplexing, 66

Spatial optical OFDM, 121

spectral efficiency, 109

Spectrally and energy-efficient OFDM,

112

Spectrally factorized optical OFDM,

122

square-root raised cosine, 168

step-index plastic optical fiber, 192

sub-band index, 192

successive interference cancellation, 244

Sum Rate Maximization Power

Allocation, 280

superluminescent diode, 407

superposition coding, 244

switch mode power supplies, 319

symbol spaced equalizer, 187

symbol time offset, 417

synchronization, 416

Terahertz, 2

third generation partnership project

long-term evolution, 87

time difference of arrival, 388

time division multiple access, 243

time domain equalization, 412

time hopping spread spectrum, 391

timing jitter, 177

transimpedance amplifier, 21

Triple-layer hybrid optical OFDM, 122

underwater sensor network, 254

unipolar, 88

Unipolar OFDM, 88

Unipolar orthogonal transmission, 112

Variable PPM, 85

variable pulse position modulation, 27

Variable pulse width unipolar optical

OFDM, 122

vehicle information and communication

system, 381

vehicle safety communications

consortium, 367

vehicle to infrastructure, 6

vehicle to vehicle, 7

vehicular adhoc networks, 351

vehicular communication, 17

visible light communication, 5

Visible Light Communication

Consortium, 13

Visible Light Communications

Associations, 13

Voice over Internet Protocol, 87

Volterra series-based non-linear

equalizer, 194

wavelength division multiple access,

242

white phosphorescent LED, 22

wireless access in vehicular

environments, 349

wireless fidelity, 15

wireless interoperability for microwave

access, 87

World Health Organization, 347

Xia pulses, 191

zero cross-correlation codes, 256

**كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Reza N. Jazar

School of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Engineering

RMIT University

Melbourne, Australia

Contents

Preface xiii

Part I Fundamentals 1

1 Fundamentals of Kinematics 3

1.1 Coordinate Frame and Position Vector 3

1.1.1 Triad 3

1.1.2 Coordinate Frame and Position Vector 4

1.1.3 Vector Definition 10

1.2 Vector Algebra 12

1.2.1 Vector Addition 12

1.2.2 Vector Multiplication 17

1.2.3 Index Notation 26

1.3 Orthogonal Coordinate Frames 31

1.3.1 Orthogonality Condition 31

1.3.2 Unit Vector 34

1.3.3 Direction of Unit Vectors 36

1.4 Differential Geometry 37

1.4.1 Space Curve 38

1.4.2 Surface and Plane 43

1.5 Motion Path Kinematics 46

1.5.1 Vector Function and Derivative 46

1.5.2 Velocity and Acceleration 51

1.5.3 Natural Coordinate Frame 54

1.6 Fields 77

1.6.1 Surface and Orthogonal Mesh 78

1.6.2 Scalar Field and Derivative 85

1.6.3 Vector Field and Derivative 92

Key Symbols 100

Exercises 103

2 Fundamentals of Dynamics 114

2.1 Laws of Motion 114

2.2 Equation of Motion 119

2.2.1 Force and Moment 120

2.2.2 Motion Equation 125

2.3 Special Solutions 131

2.3.1 Force Is a Function of Time, F = F(t) 132

2.3.2 Force Is a Function of Position, F = F(x) 141

2.3.3 Elliptic Functions 148

2.3.4 Force Is a Function of Velocity, F = F(v) 156

2.4 Spatial and Temporal Integrals 165

2.4.1 Spatial Integral: Work and Energy 165

2.4.2 Temporal Integral: Impulse and Momentum 176

2.5 Application of Dynamics 188

2.5.1 Modeling 189

2.5.2 Equations of Motion 197

2.5.3 Dynamic Behavior and Methods of Solution 200

2.5.4 Parameter Adjustment 220

Key Symbols 223

Exercises 226

Part II Geometric Kinematics 241

3 Coordinate Systems 243

3.1 Cartesian Coordinate System 243

3.2 Cylindrical Coordinate System 250

3.3 Spherical Coordinate System 263

3.4 Nonorthogonal Coordinate Frames 269

3.4.1 Reciprocal Base Vectors 269

3.4.2 Reciprocal Coordinate Frame 278

3.4.3 Inner and Outer Vector Product 285

3.4.4 Kinematics in Oblique Coordinate Frames 298

3.5 Curvilinear Coordinate System 300

3.5.1 Principal and Reciprocal Base Vectors 301

3.5.2 Principal–Reciprocal Transformation 311

3.5.3 Curvilinear Geometry 320

3.5.4 Curvilinear Kinematics 325

3.5.5 Kinematics in Curvilinear Coordinates 335

Key Symbols 346

Exercises 347

4 Rotation Kinematics 357

4.1 Rotation About Global Cartesian Axes 357

4.2 Successive Rotations About Global Axes 363

4.3 Global Roll–Pitch–Yaw Angles 370

4.4 Rotation About Local Cartesian Axes 373

4.5 Successive Rotations About Local Axes 376

4.6 Euler Angles 379Contents ix

4.7 Local Roll–Pitch–Yaw Angles 391

4.8 Local versus Global Rotation 395

4.9 General Rotation 397

4.10 Active and Passive Rotations 409

4.11 Rotation of Rotated Body 411

Key Symbols 415

Exercises 416

5 Orientation Kinematics 422

5.1 Axis–Angle Rotation 422

5.2 Euler Parameters 438

5.3 Quaternion 449

5.4 Spinors and Rotators 457

5.5 Problems in Representing Rotations 459

5.5.1 Rotation Matrix 460

5.5.2 Axis–Angle 461

5.5.3 Euler Angles 462

5.5.4 Quaternion and Euler Parameters 463

5.6 Composition and Decomposition of Rotations 465

5.6.1 Composition of Rotations 466

5.6.2 Decomposition of Rotations 468

Key Symbols 470

Exercises 471

6 Motion Kinematics 477

6.1 Rigid-Body Motion 477

6.2 Homogeneous Transformation 481

6.3 Inverse and Reverse Homogeneous Transformation 494

6.4 Compound Homogeneous Transformation 500

6.5 Screw Motion 517

6.6 Inverse Screw 529

6.7 Compound Screw Transformation 531

6.8 Plucker Line Coordinate 534 ¨

6.9 Geometry of Plane and Line 540

6.9.1 Moment 540

6.9.2 Angle and Distance 541

6.9.3 Plane and Line 541

6.10 Screw and Plucker Coordinate 545 ¨

Key Symbols 547

Exercises 548x Contents

7 Multibody Kinematics 555

7.1 Multibody Connection 555

7.2 Denavit–Hartenberg Rule 563

7.3 Forward Kinematics 584

7.4 Assembling Kinematics 615

7.5 Order-Free Rotation 628

7.6 Order-Free Transformation 635

7.7 Forward Kinematics by Screw 643

7.8 Caster Theory in Vehicles 649

7.9 Inverse Kinematics 662

Key Symbols 684

Exercises 686

Part III Derivative Kinematics 693

8 Velocity Kinematics 695

8.1 Angular Velocity 695

8.2 Time Derivative and Coordinate Frames 718

8.3 Multibody Velocity 727

8.4 Velocity Transformation Matrix 739

8.5 Derivative of a Homogeneous Transformation Matrix 748

8.6 Multibody Velocity 754

8.7 Forward-Velocity Kinematics 757

8.8 Jacobian-Generating Vector 765

8.9 Inverse-Velocity Kinematics 778

Key Symbols 782

Exercises 783

9 Acceleration Kinematics 788

9.1 Angular Acceleration 788

9.2 Second Derivative and Coordinate Frames 810

9.3 Multibody Acceleration 823

9.4 Particle Acceleration 830

9.5 Mixed Double Derivative 858

9.6 Acceleration Transformation Matrix 864

9.7 Forward-Acceleration Kinematics 872

9.8 Inverse-Acceleration Kinematics 874

Key Symbols 877

Exercises 878Contents xi

10 Constraints 887

10.1 Homogeneity and Isotropy 887

10.2 Describing Space 890

10.2.1 Configuration Space 890

10.2.2 Event Space 896

10.2.3 State Space 900

10.2.4 State–Time Space 908

10.2.5 Kinematic Spaces 910

10.3 Holonomic Constraint 913

10.4 Generalized Coordinate 923

10.5 Constraint Force 932

10.6 Virtual and Actual Works 935

10.7 Nonholonomic Constraint 952

10.7.1 Nonintegrable Constraint 952

10.7.2 Inequality Constraint 962

10.8 Differential Constraint 966

10.9 Generalized Mechanics 970

10.10 Integral of Motion 976

10.11 Methods of Dynamics 996

10.11.1 Lagrange Method 996

10.11.2 Gauss Method 999

10.11.3 Hamilton Method 1002

10.11.4 Gibbs–Appell Method 1009

10.11.5 Kane Method 1013

10.11.6 Nielsen Method 1017

Key Symbols 1021

Exercises 1024

Part IV Dynamics 1031

11 Rigid Body and Mass Moment 1033

11.1 Rigid Body 1033

11.2 Elements of the Mass Moment Matrix 1035

11.3 Transformation of Mass Moment Matrix 1044

11.4 Principal Mass Moments 1058

Key Symbols 1065

Exercises 1066

12 Rigid-Body Dynamics 1072

12.1 Rigid-Body Rotational Cartesian Dynamics 1072

12.2 Rigid-Body Rotational Eulerian Dynamics 1096

12.3 Rigid-Body Translational Dynamics 1101xii Contents

12.4 Classical Problems of Rigid Bodies 1112

12.4.1 Torque-Free Motion 1112

12.4.2 Spherical Torque-Free Rigid Body 1115

12.4.3 Axisymmetric Torque-Free Rigid Body 1116

12.4.4 Asymmetric Torque-Free Rigid Body 1128

12.4.5 General Motion 1141

12.5 Multibody Dynamics 1157

12.6 Recursive Multibody Dynamics 1170

Key Symbols 1177

Exercises 1179

13 Lagrange Dynamics 1189

13.1 Lagrange Form of Newton Equations 1189

13.2 Lagrange Equation and Potential Force 1203

13.3 Variational Dynamics 1215

13.4 Hamilton Principle 1228

13.5 Lagrange Equation and Constraints 1232

13.6 Conservation Laws 1240

13.6.1 Conservation of Energy 1241

13.6.2 Conservation of Momentum 1243

13.7 Generalized Coordinate System 1244

13.8 Multibody Lagrangian Dynamics 1251

Key Symbols 1262

Exercises 1264

References 1280

A Global Frame Triple Rotation 1287

B Local Frame Triple Rotation 1289

C Principal Central Screw Triple Combination 1291

D Industrial Link DH Matrices 1293

E Trigonometric Formula 1300

Index 1305

Index

2R planar manipulator

dynamics, 1207, 1258

equations of motion, 1209

forward acceleration, 873

general dynamics, 1258

ideal, 1207

inverse acceleration, 876

inverse kinematics, 664

inverse velocity, 778, 780

Jacobian matrix, 761, 763

kinetic energy, 1208

Lagrangian, 1208

mass moments, 1051

Newton–Euler dynamics, 1168

potential energy, 1208

recursive dynamics, 1172

4-Bar linkages

dynamics, 1163

spatial, 560, 602

A

Abel, Niels Henrik, 149

Acatastatic constraint, 966

Acceleration

angular, 789, 796, 809, 824

applied, 851

bias vector, 875

body point, 725, 824

centripetal, 726, 824, 832

Coriolis, 812, 832, 859

definition, 51

double mixed, 861

energy, 1009, 1011

forward kinematics, 872, 873

gravitational, 1254

inverse kinematics, 874

kinematics, 788

local, 832

matrix, 788, 864, 865

mixed, 816, 817

mixed Coriolis, 859

mixed double, 823, 859

multibody, 823

particle, 830

Razi, 860, 861, 886

tangential, 726, 812, 824, 832, 859

tidal, 190

transformation, 792, 818

Active transformation, 409

Actuator

force and torque, 1159, 1177

torque equation, 1169

Air resistance, 163

Angle

attitude, 829

cruise, 829

Euler, 379

heading, 829

nutation, 379

precession, 379

sideslip, 829

spin, 379

zenith, 509

Angular acceleration, 788, 789, 805, 823,

824

decomposition, 795

Euler parameters, 796, 809

matrix, 788, 808

natural frame, 809

quaternion, 809

relative, 792, 799

Rodriguez formula, 799

rotational transformation, 788, 791

vector, 788

Angular jerk, 808

Cartesian, 880

matrix, 808

Angular velocity, 385, 387, 388, 432, 695,

697, 699–702, 706, 789, 794

alternative definition, 715

13051306 Index

Angular velocity (continued)

combination, 699

coordinate transformation, 709

decomposition, 705

elements of matrix, 714

Euler parameters, 713

instantaneous, 697, 698

instantaneous axis, 699

matrix, 695

principal matrix, 702

quaternion, 711

rotation matrix, 707

Appell function, 1012

Appell, Paul Emile, 1011

Applied force, 933

Arc length, 40

Articulated arm, 666, 671, 769

Assembling kinematics, 615

Atan2 function, 665

Atwood, George, 1001

Atwood machine, 1000

Australia, 109, 885

Automorphism, 457

Axis–angle of rotation, 422, 425, 426,

440, 442, 446, 461

B

bac–cab rule, 22, 29

Basic lemma, 1217

Bernoulli equation, 931

Bernoulli, Johann, 942

Bernoulli, Johann and Jacob, 1221

Bipolar coordinate system, 341

Bipolarcylindrical coordinate system, 341

Bispherical coordinate system, 340, 342

Bong, 53

Book-stacking problem, 193

Boom, 1126

Brachistochrone, 1220

Bragg condition, 296

Broucke, Roger, 30

Bryant angles, 390

Bushehr, 858

C

Camber theory, 658

Canada, 109, 885

Canonical equation, 1003

Cardan

angles, 390

frequencies, 390

Cardioid, 258

Cardioidal coordinate system, 342

Cardioidcylindrical coordinate system, 342

Cartesian

angular velocity, 387

coordinate system, 32, 243

end-effector position, 777

end-effector velocity, 778

orthogonality condition, 32

unit vectors, 34

Casscylindrical coordinate system, 342

Caster theory, 649

Catastatic constraint, 966

Center point, 903

Central force, 993

Central frame, 1038

Central principle, 1230, 1231, 1239

Centrifugal moment, 1033

Chasles, Michel, 121

Chasles theorem, 517, 526

Christoffel, Elwin Bruno, 328

Christoffel operator, 334

Christoffel symbol, 325, 327, 333, 334,

1203, 1211

first kind, 327

second kind, 327

third kind, 335

Circular integrals, 153

Collision, 177, 181

elastic, 177, 178

inelastic, 181, 182

oblique, 187

plastic, 182

restitution coefficient, 182

Concave surface, 79

Condition

Bragg, 296

orthogonality, 31, 32

reciprocality, 271

Configuration

coordinate, 924

degree of freedom, 923, 930

path, 47Index 1307

space, 890

trajectory, 890

Confocalellip coordinate system, 342

Confocalparab coordinate system, 343

Conical coordinate system, 343

Conservation

energy, 1241

Jacobi Integral, 1242

laws, 1240

momentum, 1243

Conservative force, 174

Constant of motion, 977, 1241

Constraint

acatastatic, 966

acceleration, 922

catastatic, 966

constraint-free space, 929

force, 932, 933, 937, 943

frozen, 915

generalized, 975

holonomic, 913

inequality, 962

jerk, 923

just-, 928, 929

least, 999

limit, 962

motion, 999

multiple, 919

nonholonomic, 952

nonintegrable, 952

over-, 928, 929

Pfaffian forms, 966, 967, 1238

plane, 916

rheonomic, 913

rolling, 956–958

scleronomic, 913

slip, 962

total, 952

under-, 928, 929

unicycle, 955

Contravariant

metric, 279

vector components, 278

Control

bang-bang, 1225

directional control system, 594

minimum time, 1225

Convex surface, 79

Coordinate

cyclic, 1243

cylindrical, 506

ignorable, 1243

non-Cartesian, 1201

nonorthogonal, 32

parabolic, 1201

spherical, 744

Coordinate frame, 3, 5

Cartesian, 282

curvilinear, 300, 309

reciprocal base vector, 302

reciprocal unit vector, 302

space scale factor, 302

natural, 54, 55

neshin, 616

nonorthogonal, 24, 274, 282, 284, 285,

300

vector product, 285, 289, 291

oblique, 294, 298, 300

acceleration, 299

velocity, 299

origin, 5

orthogonal, 5, 31

orthogonality condition, 31

principal, 284, 1058

transformation, 284

reciprocal, 278, 284

transformation, 284

rim, 586

takht, 616

tire, 608

vehicle, 608

wheel, 608

wheel–body, 608

Coordinate system, 4, 243

bipolar, 341

bipolarcylindrical, 341

bispherical, 340, 342

cardioidal, 342

cardioidcylindrical, 342

Cartesian, 243

casscylindrical, 342

confocalellip, 342

confocalparab, 343

conical, 3431308 Index

Coordinate system (continued)

cylindrical, 250, 253, 257, 258

gradient, 257

orthogonality, 253

ellcylindrical, 343

ellipsoidal, 343

elliptic-hyperbolic cylindrical, 267

hypercylindrical, 343

invcasscylindrical, 344

invellcylindrical, 344

invoblspheroidal, 344

logcoshcylindrical, 344

logcylindrical, 344

maxwellcylindrical, 344

natural, 334

nonorthogonal, 269

oblatespheroidal, 345

oblique, 277

orthogonal, 243, 341

parabolic cylindrical, 261

paraboloidal1, 345

paraboloidal2, 345

paracylindrical, 345

principal, 278

rosecylindrical, 345

sixsphere, 345

spherical, 263, 265, 266, 339

orthogonality, 265

tangentcylindrical, 345

tangentsphere, 345

toroidal, 346

Coriolis

acceleration, 802, 832, 833

force, 833, 836

Coriolis, Gaspard Gustave de, 835

Costate variable, 1225

Coulomb, Charles Augustin de, 938

Covariant

metric, 279

vector components, 278

Crackle, 53

Curl, 93

potential force, 173

Curvature, 70

center, 77

plane curve, 61

principal, 84

radius, 65

surface, 84

vector, 63, 64

vectorial expression, 62

Curvilinear

acceleration, 331

base vector, 301

coordinate frame, 309

coordinate system, 293, 295, 300–302,

309, 320, 1245

reason, 334

vector product, 319

work, 331

differential, 339

geometry, 320

kinematics, 325, 335

natural coordinate, 330, 331

parallelepiped, 323, 326, 329

velocity, 331

Cyclic coordinate, 1243

Cycloid, 247, 586, 1220

curtate, 247, 586

ordinary, 247

prolate, 247, 586

D

D’Alembert, Jean Le Rond, 942

D’Alembert principle, 943

Lagrange’s form, 942

Da Vinci, Leonardo, 938

Darboux, Jean Gaston, 70

Darboux vector, 70

Degree of freedom, 923

configuration, 891, 919, 923, 928, 952,

963

event, 896

generalized, 1250

joint, 555

rigid body, 1034

state, 901, 923, 980

state–time, 909

Del, 86

Denavit–Hartenberg

method, 563, 571

notation, 563

parameters, 563, 750, 754

rule, 563Index 1309

transformation, 566–568, 574, 575,

643, 1293–1296, 1298, 1299

Derivative

mixed double, 822, 858–860

mixed second, 819

transformation

mixed, 724, 725

simple, 724

transformation formula, 724, 819

Deviation moment, 1033

Dido problem, 1221

Differential

manifold, 408

Differential geometry, 37

immersed surface, 80

parametric line, 41

quadratic surface, 45

space curve, 38, 40, 41

surface and plane, 43, 44

surface expression, 81

tangent line, 41

Differentiating, 718

B-derivative, 718, 722, 814

G-derivative, 718, 725

second, 726

second derivative, 810

transformation formula, 724

Directional

angle, 572

control system, 594, 595, 629

cosine, 6–8, 18, 38, 55, 57, 58, 81, 92,

398–400, 422, 457, 460, 482, 581

curvature, 85

derivative, 89, 91, 92, 257

line, 5, 120, 126

Displacement

actual, 916, 935, 936

impossible, 916, 935, 936

possible, 916, 935, 936

virtual, 935–937

Distance

topocentric, 508

Divergence, 93

Double factorial, 153

Double pendulum, 232, 926, 1016, 1018

Dubai, 109

Duffing equation, 1136, 1137

Dynamic

coupling, 1211

decoupling, 1211

Dynamics, 114, 1157

2R planar manipulator, 1168, 1172

4 bar linkage, 1163

actuator’s force and torque, 1177

application, 188

backward Newton–Euler, 1170

definition, 130

forward Newton–Euler, 1172

fundamentals, 114

global Newton–Euler, 1157

isolated system, 116

modeling, 189

multibody, 1251

Newton–Euler, 1157

Newtonian, 118

one-link manipulator, 1159

recursive Newton–Euler, 1157, 1170

special solutions, 131

E

Earth

free fall, 840, 846, 848, 849

kinetic energy, 1200

moving vehicle, 801

revolution energy, 1200

rotation effect, 802

rotation energy, 1200

shrinking, 185

spherical, 185

Eddington, Arthur Stanley, 115

e-delta identity, 26, 29

Eigenvalue, 433

Eigenvector, 433

Einstein summation convention, 28,

301

Ellcylindrical coordinate system, 343

Ellipsoid

energy, 1092

momentum, 1092

Ellipsoidal coordinate system, 343

Elliptic function, 148, 149, 1129, 1130,

1132

limiting, 153

period, 1531310 Index

Elliptic integral, 148, 1132

arc length, 155

complete first kind, 148

complete second kind, 149

complete third kind, 149

first kind, 148

second kind, 148

third kind, 149

End-effector

acceleration, 872

angular velocity, 776

configuration vector, 872

configuration velocity, 872

force, 1172

link, 563

orientation, 777

position kinematics, 584

position vector, 771

SCARA position, 505

space station manipulator, 580

time-optimal control, 1225

velocity, 757, 766, 778

velocity vector, 757

Energy

classical form equation, 950

Earth kinetic, 1200

first-form equation, 950

kinetic, 165

kinetic rigid body, 1036, 1037, 1077

kinetic rotational, 1073

mechanical, 166, 1200

multibody, 1252

potential, 166, 1203

primitive-form equation, 950

second-form equation, 950

Envelope, 136

Epitrochoid, 247

Equation

Bernoulli, 931

inhomogeneous, 931

linear ODE, 931, 962

Equation of motion, 119, 197

integral form, 119

Equivalent Lagrangian, 1213

Euclidean space, 887, 888

Euler

angles, 379, 382, 384, 462

integrability, 388

body frame equation, 1076, 1095

equation, 126

coordinate frame, 388

equation, 1076, 1093, 1095, 1159,

1171

equation of motion, 1072

frequencies, 385, 387, 706, 805

general equation, 1098

global rotation matrix, 403

inverse matrix, 403

–Lexell-Rodriguez formula, 424

local rotation matrix, 403

parameters, 439, 442, 443, 448, 449,

451, 463, 711, 713

rotation matrix, 382, 403

theorem, 378, 437–439

Euler-Chasles theorem, 438

Eulerian viewpoint, 737

Euler-Lagrange

equation of motion, 1215, 1217

Euler, Leonhard, 126, 463

Event space, 896

Event trajectory, 896

F

Fargo, ND, 885

Ferris wheel, 249

Field, 77

curl, 93

cylindrical, 258

derivative, 89, 94, 95, 98

directional derivative, 91

divergence, 93

gradient, 88

index notation, 99

isosurface, 86, 92

isovalue, 86

Laplacian, 94

scalar, 77, 85, 99

second derivative, 97

spherical, 267

stationary, 77

tensor, 99

timeinvariant, 77

total derivative, 89

vector, 77, 88, 92, 97–99Index 1311

Final rotation formula, 435, 436

First integral, 977

First variation, 1216, 1224

Fixed frame, 4

Flash space, 910

Flash–time space, 910

Flicker space, 911

Flicker–time space, 911

Focus point, 903

Forbidden umbrella, 136, 137

Force

action, 1158

actuator, 1177

body, 120

central, 993

conservative, 166, 1203

constraint, 932, 937, 943

contact, 120

Coriolis, 833, 836

derivative, 131

driven, 1158

driving, 1158

effective, 839

external, 120

friction, 937

function, 117

general, 941

generalized, 1192, 1254

gravitational, 994

gravitational vector, 1255

internal, 120

Magnus, 1110

potential, 166, 1203

potential field, 1200

reaction, 1158

resultant, 120

system, 120

total, 120

Formula

axis–angle, 520

derivative transformation, 724, 725,

819, 820, 822, 859, 864

derivative transport, 797

final rotation, 435, 436

Frenet–Serret, 64, 65

geometric transformation, 693

Gibbs, 447

Grubler, 559, 560 ¨

inversion, 530

Kutzbach, 560

parallel axes, 1047

relative acceleration, 792, 795, 799

relative angular velocity, 700, 705

Rodriguez, 447, 456, 463, 466,

475, 477, 520, 699, 754,

785, 799

trigonometric, 1300

Forward kinematics, 584

Foucault pendulum, 853, 855

Frame

central, 1102

principal, 1073

Free-body diagram, 156

Freezing process, 915

Frenet

frame, 58

trihedron, 58

Frenet, Jean Fred ´ eric, 65 ´

Frenet–Serret formula, 64

Friction

force, 938

law, 938

Fundamental equation, 941, 942, 950,

996, 997, 1014, 1233, 1240, 1242

first form, 942, 1014

second form, 950

third form, 950

G

Galilean transformation, 890

Galilei, Galileo, 1221

Gauss

equation, 999

function, 999

Gauss dynamics, 999

Gauss, Johann Carl Friedrich, 464, 999

Generalized

applied force, 1013–1015

constraint, 973, 975

coordinate, 923, 926–929, 975, 1189,

1192, 1194, 1205

force, 986, 1002, 1191, 1192, 1194,

1202, 1203, 1206, 1209, 1246,

12521312 Index

Generalized (continued)

inertia force, 1013–1015

kinetic energy, 971

mechanics, 970

momenta, 1248

momentum, 986, 1002, 1004, 1192,

1248, 1268

potential force, 972

space, 928, 929, 974

velocity, 1249

work, 1247

Geodesics problem, 1218

Gibbs

matrix, 447

vector, 447

Gibbs–Appell

dynamics, 1009

equation, 1009, 1011, 1012

function, 1009, 1011

Gibbs, Josiah Willard, 1011

Gorz, 131

Grad, 86

Gradient, 84, 86

definition, 89

operator, 86

Gram determinant, 295

Grassmanian, 537

Gravitation

Newton law, 121

universal constant, 121

Gravity center, 123

Group properties, 408

Grubler formula, 560 ¨

Guldin, Paul, 226, 227

Guldin theorem, 226, 227

H

Hamilton

dynamics, 1002

equation, 1002, 1003

function, 1002

Hamiltonian, 1225

dynamics, 1002

equation, 1002

function, 1002

method, 1002

system, 1006

Hamilton principle, 1228, 1230

general form, 1228

Hamilton, William, 464

Harmonic oscillator, 142

Helix, 51, 517

Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf, 954

Hodograph, 47, 49

Homogeneity, 887, 888

position, 889

time, 888

Homogeneous

compound transformation, 500

coordinate, 482, 489

direction, 489

general transformation, 490, 498

inverse transformation, 494, 496, 498,

501

position vector, 483

scale factor, 482

transformation, 482, 487–489, 494, 497

Huygens–Steiner theorem, 1047

Hyperbolic integrals, 153

Hypercylindrical coordinate system, 343

Hypergeometric function, 152, 153

Hypertrochoid, 247

Hypotrochoid, 247

I

Ignorable coordinate, 1243

Impenetrability, 889

Impossible displacement, 936

Impulse, 119, 176, 177

Impulsive point, 893

Ince, Edward Lindsay, 970

Index notation, 26

India, 858

Inequality constraint, 962

Inertial frame, 889

Inhomogeneous equation, 931

Integrability, 388

Integral of motion, 976, 977, 1241

Integrating factor, 960

Interpolant, 14

Interpolation, 14

linear, 14

problem, 14

vector, 14Index 1313

Invariant vector, 244

Invcasscylindrical coordinate system, 344

Invellcylindrical coordinate system, 344

Inverse kinematics

Pieper technique, 676

transformation technique, 675

Inverse Lagrangian, 1214

Invoblspheroidal coordinate system, 344

Iran, 109, 858, 885

Isotropy, 887, 888

position, 889

time, 888

J

Jacobi, Carl Gustav Jacob, 149

Jacobi function, 148, 149

Jacobian, 315

analytical, 778

displacement matrix, 757

elements, 776

generating vector, 765, 767

geometrical, 778

link, 1252

matrix, 757, 758, 763, 767, 769, 773,

774, 778, 781, 872, 873, 877

polar manipulator, 764, 874

rotational matrix, 757

Jeeq, 53

Jerk, 53, 807, 808

angular, 808

body point, 808

definition, 51

global, 807

matrix, 865

rotational transformation, 807

transformation, 866, 867

Jerkmeter, 53

Joint, 555

acceleration vector, 872

active, 555

angle, 565

distance, 565

equivalent spherical, 562

inactive, 555

multiple, 561

parameters, 565

passive, 555

prismatic, 555

revolute, 555

rotary, 555

translatory, 555

universal, 560

variable vector, 757

velocity vector, 757, 767

Jolt, 53

Jounce, 53

Just constraint, 928, 929

Just rigid, 1033

K

Kane

dynamics, 1013

equation, 1013, 1014

Kane equation, 1016

Kennedy theorem, 734

Kinematic

length, 565

space, 910

Kinematics

acceleration, 789

assembling, 615

foot–leg, 513

forward, 584

forward acceleration, 872

forward velocity, 757

inverse, 675

inverse acceleration, 874

inverse velocity, 778

velocity, 754

Kinetic energy, 165

Earth, 1200

parabolic coordinate, 1202

rigid body, 1036, 1037, 1077

rotational body, 1073

Kinetic potential, 984

Kronecker delta, 26, 681, 1042

L

Lagrange

dynamics, 996, 1251

equation, 1217

equation of motion, 1189, 1203, 1215,

1234, 1238, 1239

explicit equation, 1202, 12101314 Index

Lagrange (continued)

mechanics, 1203

multiplier, 933, 1221

Lagrange, Joseph-Louis, 213

Lagrangian, 984, 1203, 1241

dynamics, 1189

equivalent, 1213

form invariant, 1214

fundamental theorem, 1234

generality, 1238

inverse, 1214

viewpoint, 737

Laplacian, 94, 98

Larz, 53

Law

conservation, 176, 1240

cosine, 105

force, 114

gravitational, 121, 122

inertia, 890

inverse square, 994

Kepler’s second, 994

Kepler’s third, 419

motion, 114, 126

motion second, 1101

Newton’s first, 114

Newton’s second, 114

Newton’s third, 114

rotational motion, 1077

sine, 508

Laws of motion, 114

Least constraint, 999

Legendre, Adrien-Marie, 150

Levi-Civita symbol, 26, 27, 448

Levi-Civita, Tullio, 900

Libration, 142

Lie group, 408

Limit constraint, 962

Linear space, 15

Link

angular velocity, 756

class 1 and 2, 1293

class 3 and 4, 1294

class 5 and 6, 1295

class 7 and 8, 1296

class 9 and 10, 1298

class 11 and 12, 1299

classification, 573

compound, 561

end effector, 563

Euler equation, 1171

kinetic energy, 1252

length, 565

Newton–Euler dynamics, 1157

offset, 565

parameters, 565

recursive dynamics, 1170

translational velocity, 756

twist, 565

velocity, 754

Lissajous curves, 144

Lituus, 260

Load, 120

Lobachevsky space, 207

Location vector, 519, 521, 650

Logcoshcylindrical coordinate

system, 344

Logcylindrical coordinate system, 344

M

Manipulator

2R planar, 1207

one-link dynamics, 1159

planar polar, 1257

SCARA, 505

Mass, 115

Mass center, 122, 126, 1039, 1040, 1102

Mass moment, 1033

about a line, 1042

about a plane, 1042

about a point, 1042

characteristic equation, 1062

diagonal elements, 1041

matrix, 1035

parallel-axes theorem, 1044

polar, 1035

principal, 1058

principal directions, 1059

principal frame, 1058

principal invariants, 1062

principal planes, 1065

product, 1035

pseudomatrix, 1037

rigid body, 1072Index 1315

rotated-axes theorem, 1044

transformation, 1044

Matrix

orthogonality condition, 399

skew symmetric, 423, 425, 439

Maxwellcylindrical coordinate system, 344

Measure number, 5

Mechanical energy, 166

Mechanics

Lagrangian, 1189

Newtonian, 118

Mechanism

3D slider–crank, 598

4-bar, 560, 1163

inverted slider–crank, 731

slider–crank, 597

Melbourne, 109, 885

Methods of dynamics, 996

Gauss method, 999

Gibbs–Appell method, 1009

Hamilton method, 1002

Kane method, 1013

Lagrange method, 996, 998

Mangerone–Deleanu method, 1018

Nielsen method, 1017, 1018, 1020

Tzenoff method, 1020, 1021 ´

Methods of solution, 200

perturbation methods, 200

series methods, 200

Metric tensor, 279

Moment

action, 1158

applied, 126

driven, 1158

driving, 1158

of a force, 120

reaction, 1158

resultant, 120

total, 120

Moment of inertia, 1033

about a line, 1042

about a plane, 1042

about a point, 1042

characteristic equation, 1062

diagonal elements, 1041

Huygens–Steiner theorem, 1047

parallel-axes theorem, 1044

polar, 1035

principal, 1058

principal axes, 1073

principal invariants, 1062

product, 1035

pseudomatrix, 1037

rigid body, 1072

rotated-axes theorem, 1044

Moment of momentum, 126

Momentum, 125, 176, 177

angular, 126

definition, 115

ellipsoid, 1092

linear, 125

translational, 125

Motion

central force, 993

impossible, 913

possible, 913

spiral, 245

Moving frame, 4, 58

Multibody

2R manipulator, 676, 1168, 1169, 1172

3D slider–crank mechanism, 598

articulated manipulator, 640, 666, 671

assembling, 615, 616, 621

best spherical wrist, 623

closed-loop mechanism, 597

connection, 555

Denavit–Hartenberg rule, 563

directional control system, 594

direct kinematics, 584

dynamics, 1157, 1251, 1254

forward kinematics, 584, 643

four-bar linkage, 1163

gravitational vector, 1255

industrial links, 573

inertia matrix, 1253

inverse kinematics, 662

inverse transformation, 674

kinematics, 555

kinetic energy, 1252, 1253

Lagrange dynamics, 1251

Lagrange equation, 1254

Lagrangian, 1254

order-free rotation, 628

order-free transformation, 6351316 Index

Multibody (continued)

potential energy, 1253

recursive dynamics, 1170–1172

rest position, 565

shuttle manipulator, 577, 588

spherical arm, 619

spherical robot, 576, 677

spherical wrist, 616

takht and neshin, 616

tire–wheel–vehicle, 606, 611–614

trebuchet, 581

universal joint, 602

velocity coupling vector, 1255

N

Nabla, 86, 100

identities, 100

Natural coordinate frame, 54, 66, 71

binormal, 57

bivector, 56

curvature, 57

orthogonality, 62

principal normal line, 56

n-body problem, 194, 992

Neshin, 616

Neutron star, 1127

New Delhi, 858

Newton equation, 126

body frame, 1102

definition, 822

global frame, 1101

Lagrange form, 1191

rotating frame, 839

Newton–Euler

backward equations, 1170

equation of motion, 1171

equations of motion, 1157

forward equations, 1171, 1172

global equations, 1157

recursive equations, 1170

Newtonian

dynamics, 922

Newton, Isaac, 126, 992

New York, 885

Nielsen

dynamics, 1017

equation, 1017, 1020

Node point, 903

Nonholonomic Constraint, 952

Nonpotential force, 170

O

Oblatespheroidal coordinate system, 345

Oklahoma City, 109

Optimal control, 1225

Hamiltonian, 1225

Lagrange equation, 1215

linear system, 1225

objective function, 1225

switching point, 1226

Orientable surface, 79

Orlando, 858

Orthogonality condition, 31, 399

Orthogonal mesh, 79

Osculating

plane, 54, 56, 78, 86

sphere, 66

Overconstraint, 928, 929

Overrigid, 1034

P

Paraboloidal1 coordinate system, 345

Paraboloidal2 coordinate system, 345

Paracylindrical coordinate system, 345

Pars, Leopold Alexander, 942

Partial

angular velocity, 1015

derivative, 78, 79, 86, 1245

velocity, 1013, 1014, 1016, 1017

Particle, 889

definition, 115

impenetrability, 115

Passive transformation, 409

Path

admissible, 1215

configuration, 47

cycloid, 247

frame, 58

kinematics, 46

minimizing, 1215, 1216

motion, 98

optimal, 1217, 1224

projectile, 135, 144, 221

shortest, 1218Index 1317

spiral, 260

variable, 1215

Pendulum, 145, 149, 921

acceleration, 800

compound, 1271

connected, 1269

constraint, 981

double, 1016, 1018

elastic, 1005, 1012, 1206

first integral, 981

flexible support, 1268

Foucault, 853, 855

heavy, 1272

integral of motion, 988

inverted, 1264

in wind, 1264

moving support, 921, 925, 1266, 1269

oscillating support, 1193

planar, 925, 1156

simple, 145, 152, 800, 1192

sliding, 1193

spherical, 229, 803, 804, 933, 988, 1204

turning, 1181, 1267, 1275

variable mass, 1271

velocity, 800

Permutation symbol, 26, 27, 448

Perpendicular plane, 54

Persia, 584, 860

Persian, 616

Persian Gulf, 109, 858, 885

Pfaffian forms, 966, 967, 1238

Pfaff, Johann Friedrich, 969

Pfaff problem, 970

Phase

plane, 901, 902, 906, 1006, 1227

Hamilton, 1006, 1007

modified, 1006, 1007

portrait, 901, 903, 905, 1121

velocity

modified, 1007

Physical

force, 933

quantity

scalaric, 12

vectorial, 10

Pieper technique, 676

Planar curve, 65

Plucker ¨

angle, 541

classification coordinate, 538

distance, 541

line coordinate, 534–537, 541,

544–546, 648

moment, 540

ray coordinate, 535, 537

reciprocal product, 541

screw, 545

virtual product, 541

Poinsot, Louis, 121

Point

at infinity, 489, 490

singular, 902

Point mass, 889

Pole, 493

Pop, 53

Position vector, 5

Potential

energy, 166

force, 166, 1203

Principal

angular acceleration, 794, 795

angular velocity, 702, 794

axes, 461, 486, 1065, 1073, 1133, 1138

base vector, 327

base vectors, 301, 1245

body frame, 990

central screw, 526, 532, 533

components, 283

coordinate frame, 278, 1060, 1073

coordinates, 310, 311

curvature, 84

derivative, 327, 334

differential rotation, 752

direction, 85

frame, 278, 279, 287, 304, 309

invariants, 1062

mass moment, 1058–1060, 1062, 1063,

1065, 1139

metric, 326

nonorthogonal frame, 284

normal line, 56

plane, 243

planes, 1065

radius of gyration, 10441318 Index

Principal (continued)

rotation matrix, 423, 455, 707, 1061

unit vectors, 243, 271, 278, 282, 298,

299, 301, 304, 1245

Principle

angular impulse, 177

angular impulse and moment of

momentum, 177

central, 1230, 1231, 1239

conservation of energy, 165, 166, 985,

1242

conservation of moment of momentum,

177

conservation of momentum, 176

D’Alembert, 942, 943, 1014

decoupling, 663

determinacy, 130

Galileo relativity, 889

Gauss, 197

Hamilton, 1228, 1229, 1231, 1232

impulse and momentum, 176, 183

least constraint, 999

minimum constraint, 197

Newton–Laplace, 130

Pontryagin, 1225

projection, 289

relative velocity, 742

superposition, 118

variational, 1228, 1230

virtual work, 937, 942, 945

work and energy, 165

Problem

antiprojectile, 220

book-stacking, 193

brachistochrone, 1220

bug, 51

central force, 993

central-force motion, 1250

collision, 898

composition, 465

decomposition, 465

Dido, 1221

dynamic, 116

foot–leg kinematic, 513

forward acceleration, 872

forward kinematics, 584

forward velocity, 758

free fall, 847

geodesic, 1218

interpolation, 14

inverse acceleration, 875

inverse kinematics, 662

inverse Lagrangian, 1214

inverse velocity, 778

minimization, 1217

minimum time, 1225

n-body, 30, 194, 992

open, 367, 379

Pfaff, 970

projectile, 134

regularization, 898

resolved rates, 778

rigid body, 1112

rotation, 460

shortest path, 1218

three-body, 29, 213–216, 219

time-optimal, 1225

two-body, 194, 210

vector interpolation, 14

walking, 513

Projectile, 134–141, 156

antiprojectile gun, 220

height, 157

height time, 157

in air, 156, 160

limit velocity, 159

path, 158

range, 157

range time, 157

umberella, 137

variable gravitational acceleration, 198

Q

Quaternions, 449, 463

addition, 450

composition rotation, 454

flag form, 450

inverse rotation, 453

multiplication, 450

rotation, 451

R

Radius of gyration, 1043

principal, 1044Index 1319

Razi acceleration, 860

Razi, Zakariya, 860

Reciprocal

base vectors, 272, 273, 275, 283, 301,

340

components, 281, 283

coordinate frame, 278, 282

coordinates, 310, 311

derivative, 334

frame, 284

geometric interpretation, 277

metric, 335

principal vector, 276

reciprocality condition, 271

unit vectors, 269, 298, 299, 301

vectors, 269, 271, 272

scalar triple product, 271, 276

Rectifying plane, 54, 57, 75

Rectilinear motion, 906

escape, 908

libration, 907

limitation, 907

lost, 908

rest, 906

Reference frame, 4

Rest

point, 893

position, 902

Right-handed convention, 3

Right-hand Rule, 4

Rigid body

acceleration, 823

angular momentum, 1074, 1078

angular velocity, 432

asymmetric, 1112, 1128

axially symmetric, 1116

axisymmetric, 1112, 1116

body frame, 1033

centrosymmetric, 1115

classical problems, 1112

definition, 1033, 1034

Duffing equation, 1136

equimomental, 1112

Euler equation, 1076, 1093

general motion, 1141

just-rigid, 1033

kinematics, 477

kinetic energy, 1036, 1037, 1077

mass moment, 1072

moment of inertia, 1072

motion, 477

motion classification, 527

motion composition, 481

motion condition, 430

motion theorem, 1035

overrigid, 1034

Poinsot interpretation, 1135

principal rotation matrix, 1061

rolling disc, 1143

rotational kinetics, 1072

rotation condition, 430

rotation theorem, 433

spherical, 1039, 1112, 1115

stability, 1138–1141

steady rotation, 1083

torque-free, 1112

translational dynamics, 1101

translational kinetics, 1101

velocity, 727, 730

Robot

articulated, 666, 769, 774

recursive dynamics, 1170

rest position, 572

SCARA, 505

spherical, 677, 767

Rocket motion, 183

final velocity, 184

multistage, 185

Rodriguez

rotation formula, 424, 427, 441,

445–447, 456, 461, 467, 477, 520,

532, 699, 754

vector, 446, 447, 466

Rodriguez, Benjamin, 463

Roll angle, 1107

Roller coaster, 42, 72, 77

Rolling constraint, 956–958

Roll–pitch–yaw

frequency, 394

global angles, 455

global rotation matrix, 455

Rosecylindrical coordinate

system, 3451320 Index

Rotation, 425

acceleration transformation, 788, 791

axis–angle, 422, 425, 426, 440, 442,

446, 461

composition, 465

decomposition, 465

eigenvalue, 433

eigenvector, 433

exponential form, 445

general, 397

global axes, 357

infinitesimal, 444

kinematics, 357

local axes, 373, 376, 378

local versus global, 395

matrix, 460

order free, 628

pole, 734

quaternion, 451

reverse, 425

Stanley method, 449

successive global axes, 360,

363–365

successive local axes, 376, 377

X-matrix, 358

x-matrix, 360

Y -matrix, 358

y-matrix, 373

Z-matrix, 357

z-matrix, 373

Rotational jerk, 807

Rotator, 425, 457

Routhian, 1008

Rule

bac–cab, 22, 29

chain, 746

Denavit–Hartenberg, 563, 566–568

homogeneous transformation, 610,

741

Napier, 369

parallel-axes, 1044

relative angular acceleration, 792

relative angular velocity, 792, 860

right-hand, 4, 565

rotated-axes, 1044

Rush space, 910

Rush–time space, 910

S

Saddle point, 903

Scalar, 12

equal, 12

equivalent, 12

triple product, 23, 33

Scale, 5

SCARA robot, 505

Screw, 51, 121, 517, 522, 527

axis, 517

central, 518, 519, 521, 523, 533, 546,

566, 643, 648

combination, 531, 532

coordinate, 517

decomposition, 533

exponential, 532

forward kinematics, 643

instantaneous, 546

intersection, 648

inverse, 529, 530, 532

left-handed, 517

location vector, 519

motion, 565, 738

parameters, 518, 525

pitch, 517

Plucker coordinate, 545 ¨

principal, 526, 532, 533

reverse central, 519

right-handed, 3, 517

special case, 525

transformation, 520, 523

twist, 517

Second derivative, 726

Second variation, 1216, 1224

Series solution, 29, 210, 213

Serret, Joseph Alfred, 65

Shake, 131

Sharang, 131

Shiraz, 885

Sina, Abu Ali, 584

Sixsphere coordinate system, 345

Slip constraint, 962

Snap, 53

Snatch, 131

Sooz, 53

Space

configuration, 890Index 1321

constraint-free, 929

curve, 38, 40, 41, 48

describing, 890

Euclidean, 888

event, 896

flash, 910

flash–time, 910

flicker, 911

flicker–time, 911

kinematic, 910

Lobachevsky, 207

rush, 910

rush–time, 910

spark, 911

sparkle, 911

sparkle–time, 911

spark–time, 911

state, 900

state–time, 908

Sparkle space, 911

Sparkle–time space, 911

Spark space, 911

Spark–time space, 911

Spatial integral, 165

Special solutions, 131

force of position, 141

force of time, 132

Force of velocity, 156

Spherical

arm, 619

coordinate system, 263

Earth, 185

field, 267

kinematics, 265

pendulum, 803, 804

rigid body, 1039

wrist, 616

Spinor, 425, 457

Spiral

Archimedes, 260

Fermat, 260

hyperbolic, 260

logarithmic, 260

motion, 245, 260

Stable

focus point, 903

node point, 904

Stanley method, 449

Stark effect, 1201

State

space, 900

trajectory, 900

State–time

space, 908

trajectory, 908, 909

Steering axis

caster angle, 650

caster plane, 650

forward location, 651

lateral location, 651

lean angle, 650

lean plane, 650

Sundman, Karl Frithiof, 900

Suspension

caster angle, 650

caster plane, 650

forward location, 651

lateral location, 651

lean angle, 650

lean plane, 650

location vector, 651

steering axis, 650

Symbols, xv

System of particles

angular momentum, 128

kinetic energy, 174

motion equation, 127

rotational motion, 129

work, 175

Szebehely, Victor, 419, 900

T

Takht, 616

Tangentcylindrical coordinate system, 345

Tangent plane, 78, 79, 86

Tangentsphere coordinate system, 345

Tavaan, 131

Tehran, 109

Temporal integral, 165, 176

Tetrad, 4

Theorem

Chasles, 121, 517, 526

Euler, 378, 435, 437, 438, 461, 1142

Euler–Chasles, 4381322 Index

Theorem (continued)

fundamental Lagrangian, 1234

Guldin, 226, 227

Huygens–Steiner, 1047

Kennedy, 734

order-free rotations, 628

order-free transformations, 635

parallel-axes, 1044, 1047

Poinsot, 121

rigid-body motion, 1035

rigid-body rotation, 433

rotated-axes, 1044

Three-body problem, 29, 213

series solution, 29–31

Tides, 189

neap, 193

ocean, 189

spring, 193

Time derivative, 718

Time history, 896

Tire

coordinate frame, 608, 609

Tireprint, 607

Top, 384, 990, 1151

dynamics, 1150

Topocentric distance, 508

Toroidal coordinate system, 346

Toronto, 109, 885

Torque, 120

Torsion, 65, 70

Trajectory

actual, 916

configuration, 890

event, 896

possible, 916

state, 900

state–time, 908

Transformation

active and passive, 409

general, 397

homogeneous, 482

order free, 635

tire to vehicle frame, 613

tire to wheel–body frame, 611, 612

tire to wheel frame, 610, 611

wheel to tire frame, 609, 611

wheel to wheel–body frame, 612

wheel–body to vehicle frame, 614

Transformation matrix

derivative, 749

differential, 752, 753

elements, 400

velocity, 739

Trebuchet, 581

Triad, 3

coordinate frame, 3

natural, 55

negative, 3

nonorthogonal, 269, 270

opposite, 3

orthogonal, 3

positive, 3

right-handed, 3

standard, 3

Trigonometric equation, 668

Trochoid, 247, 586

Tug, 131

Two-body problem, 210

Tzenoff ´

dynamics, 1021

equation, 1020, 1021

U

Underconstraint, 928, 929

Unicycle constraint, 955

Unit system, xv

Unit vector, 5, 34–36

Cartesian frames, 34

definition, 36

spherical frames, 34

Universal joint, 560, 602, 604, 605

history, 604

speed ratio, 605

Unstable

focus point, 903

node point, 904

USA, 109

V

Variable

scalar, 46

Variation, 940

Vecface, 10

Vecfree, 10Index 1323

Veclane, 10

Vecline, 10

Vecpoface, 10

Vecpoint, 10

Vecpolane, 10

Vecpoline, 10

Vecporee, 11

Vector

absolute value, 5

addition, 12, 15

algebra, 12

angular acceleration, 788

anticommutative property, 17

associative property, 12, 15

axis, 10

bounded, 10

Cartesian, 245

characteristics, 10

commutative property, 12, 15, 17

components, 5

contravariant components, 278

covariant components, 278

decomposed expression, 6, 9

decomposition, 6, 9

definition, 10

derivative, 46, 48

direction, 10

end point, 10

equation, 20

free, 10

function, 46, 51

Gibbs, 447

gravitational force, 1255

inner product, 17, 285, 289, 291

interpolation, 14

invariant, 244

inverse-element property, 16

length, 5, 10

length-invariant property, 402

line, 10

line of action, 10

modulus, 5

multiplication, 17

natural expression, 6, 9

normal, 79

normal base, 312

null-element property, 16

outer product, 17, 285, 289, 291

plane, 10

point, 10

point-free, 11

point-line, 10

point-plane, 10

position, 5

principal base, 301

principal unit, 278, 301

quaternion product, 17

reciprocal, 269–271, 273, 275–277

reciprocal base, 278

reciprocality condition, 271

requirements, 10

reverse, 271

Rodriguez, 447

rotation, 432

scalar triple product, 23, 294

sliding, 10

space, 24

start point, 10

surface, 10

tangent base, 312

triple product, 24

types, 10

unit, 34

variable, 8

variable direction, 8

variable length, 8

vecface, 10

vecfree, 10

vecline, 10

vecpoface, 10

vecpoint, 10

vecpolane, 10

vecpoline, 10

vecporee, 11

velocity coupling, 1255

Vehicle dynamics

Lagrange method, 1091

Newton–Euler equations, 1109

pitch angle, 1107

pitch rate, 1107

roll angle, 1107

roll dynamics, 1107

roll equation, 1109

roll rate, 11071324 Index

Vehicle dynamics (continued)

yaw angle, 1107

yaw rate, 1107

Velocity

coefficient matrix, 751

definition, 51

end effector, 757

hodograph, 49

inverse transformation, 739

limit, 159

matrix, 865

operator matrix, 749

prismatic transformation matrix,

751

revolute transformation matrix,

751

transformation matrix, 739, 743,

749

Virtual

displacement, 936, 937

product, 541

velocity, 938

work, 935, 937, 941

W

Wheel

camber angle, 608

coordinate frame, 608, 609

degrees of freedom, 608

spin, 608

Wheel–body

coordinate frame, 608, 609

kinematics, 606

Work, 165

actual, 935

virtual, 935, 1192

Wrench, 121

Wrist

spherical, 576, 773

transformation matrix, 618

Y

Yank, 131

Z

Zero-velocity point, 733

Zoor, 131

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Cert Prep Autodesk Fusion 360 User Course

1.Introduction

2.1. Considerations for Becoming Certified

3.2. User Interface and Navigation

4.3. Collaboration

5.4. Sketching

6.5. Part Modeling

7.6. Assembly Modeling

8.7. Drawing

9.8. Advanced Modeling

10.9. Sculpt

11.10. 3D Printing – Additive MFG

12.11. Simulation

13.Conclusion

Exercise Files

1.Introduction\01.Welcome

1.Introduction\02.What you should know

1.Introduction\03.Using the exercise files

2.1. Considerations for Becoming Certified\04.The value of certification

2.1. Considerations for Becoming Certified\05.Tips for taking the exam

3.2. User Interface and Navigation\06.The Fusion 360 interface

3.2. User Interface and Navigation\07.Setting preferences

4.3. Collaboration\08.Creating and sharing projects

5.4. Sketching\09.Creating a 2D sketch

6.5. Part Modeling\10.Creating a part model

6.5. Part Modeling\11.Working with direct modeling

7.6. Assembly Modeling\12.Understanding assembly structure

7.6. Assembly Modeling\13.Positioning bodies and components

8.7. Drawing\14.Creating drawing views

8.7. Drawing\15.Annotating the drawing

9.8. Advanced Modeling\16.Working with advanced modeling tools

10.9. Sculpt\17.Creating a freeform body

11.10. 3D Printing – Additive MFG\18.Generating data for 3D printing

12.11. Simulation\19.Performing a stress analysis

13.Conclusion\20.Next steps

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Modeling a Bicycle Frame with SolidWorks Course

001 Welcome

002 Using the exercise files

003 Requirements

004 Front-triangle sketch

005 Sketching the path profiles

006 Surface lofting the profiles

007 Extruding the remaining profiles

008 Trimming

009 Lofting and filling

010 Advanced lofting and filling

011 Knit and thicken

012 Goodbye

Exercise Files

**كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Dingyü Xue

Northeastern University

Shenyang, People’s Republic of China

YangQuan Chen

Utah State University

Logan, Utah, USA

Derek P. Atherton

University of Sussex

Brighton, United Kingdom

Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction to Feedback Control 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Historical Background 3

1.3 Structure of the Book . 4

1.4 A Survival Guide to MATLAB 6

1.4.1 A Brief Overview of MATLAB 6

1.4.2 Standard MATLAB Statements and Functions 6

1.4.3 Graphics Facilities in MATLAB . 7

1.4.4 On-Line Help Facilities in MATLAB . 7

1.4.5 MATLAB Toolboxes . 8

Problems 9

2 Mathematical Models of Feedback Control Systems 11

2.1 A Physical Modeling Example 11

2.2 The Laplace Transformation . 12

2.3 Transfer Function Models . 14

2.3.1 Transfer Functions of Control Systems 14

2.3.2 MATLAB Representations of Transfer Functions . 14

2.3.3 Transfer Function Matrices for Multivariable Systems 16

2.3.4 Transfer Functions of Discrete-Time Systems 16

2.4 Other Mathematical Model Representations . 17

2.4.1 State Space Modeling . 17

2.4.2 Zero-Pole-Gain Description 19

2.5 Modeling of Interconnected Block Diagrams . 20

2.5.1 Series Connection . 20

2.5.2 Parallel Connection 20

2.5.3 Feedback Connection . 21

2.5.4 More Complicated Connections 22

2.6 Conversion Between Different Model Objects 24

2.6.1 Conversion to Transfer Functions . 25

2.6.2 Conversion to Zero-Pole-Gain Models 26

2.6.3 State Space Realizations 27

v2007/1

page v

vi Contents

2.6.4 Conversion Between Continuous and Discrete-Time Models . 34

2.7 An Introduction to System Identification . 35

2.7.1 Identification of Discrete-Time Systems . 35

2.7.2 Order Selection 40

2.7.3 Generation of Identification Signals 41

2.7.4 Identification of Multivariable Systems 44

Problems 45

3 Analysis of Linear Control Systems 51

3.1 Properties of Linear Control Systems . 52

3.1.1 Stability Analysis . 52

3.1.2 Controllability and Observability Analysis 55

3.1.3 Kalman Decomposition of Linear Systems 59

3.1.4 Time Moments and Markov Parameters 62

3.1.5 Norm Measures of Signals and Systems . 64

3.2 Time Domain Analysis of Linear Systems 66

3.2.1 Analytical Solutions to Continuous Time Responses . 66

3.2.2 Analytical Solutions to Discrete-Time Responses . 69

3.3 Numerical Simulation of Linear Systems . 70

3.3.1 Step Responses of Linear Systems 70

3.3.2 Impulse Responses of Linear Systems 75

3.3.3 Time Responses to Arbitrary Inputs 76

3.4 Root Locus of Linear Systems 78

3.5 Frequency Domain Analysis of Linear Systems . 84

3.5.1 Frequency Domain Graphs with MATLAB 84

3.5.2 Stability Analysis Using Frequency Domain Methods 87

3.5.3 Gain and Phase Margins of a System . 88

3.5.4 Variations of Conventional Nyquist Plots . 90

3.6 Introduction to Model Reduction Techniques . 92

3.6.1 Padé Approximations and Routh Approximations 92

3.6.2 Padé Approximations to Delay Terms . 96

3.6.3 Suboptimal Reduction Techniques for Systems with Delays . 98

3.6.4 State Space Model Reduction . 101

Problems 104

4 Simulation Analysis of Nonlinear Systems 111

4.1 An Introduction to Simulink . 111

4.1.1 Commonly Used Simulink Blocks 112

4.1.2 Simulink Modeling 115

4.1.3 Simulation Algorithms and Control Parameters 116

4.2 Modeling of Nonlinear Systems by Examples 118

4.3 Nonlinear Elements Modeling 126

4.3.1 Modeling of Piecewise Linear Nonlinearities . 126

4.3.2 Limit Cycles of Nonlinear Systems 129

4.4 Linearization of Nonlinear Models 131

Problems 1352007/1

page v

Contents vii

5 Model-Based Controller Design 139

5.1 Cascade Lead-Lag Compensator Design . 140

5.1.1 Introduction to Lead-Lag Synthesis 140

5.1.2 Lead-Lag Synthesis by Phase Margin Assignment 146

5.2 Linear Quadratic Optimal Control 151

5.2.1 Linear Quadratic Optimal Control Strategies . 151

5.2.2 Linear Quadratic Regulator Problems . 152

5.2.3 Linear Quadratic Control for Discrete-Time Systems . 155

5.2.4 Selection of Weighting Matrices . 156

5.2.5 Observers and Observer Design 159

5.2.6 State Feedback and Observer-Based Controllers . 162

5.3 Pole Placement Design 165

5.3.1 The Bass–Gura Algorithm . 166

5.3.2 Ackermann’s Algorithm 166

5.3.3 Numerically Robust Pole Placement Algorithm 167

5.3.4 Observer Design Using the Pole Placement Technique 169

5.3.5 Observer-Based Controller Design Using the Pole Placement

Technique . 169

5.4 Decoupling Control of Multivariable Systems 171

5.4.1 Decoupling Control with State Feedback . 171

5.4.2 Pole Placement of Decoupling Systems with State Feedback . 172

5.5 SISOTool: An Interactive Controller Design Tool 175

Problems 177

6 PID Controller Design 181

6.1 Introduction 182

6.1.1 The PID Actions 182

6.1.2 PID Control with Derivative in the Feedback Loop 184

6.2 Ziegler–Nichols Tuning Formula . 185

6.2.1 Empirical Ziegler–Nichols Tuning Formula 185

6.2.2 Derivative Action in the Feedback Path 189

6.2.3 Methods for First-Order Plus Dead Time Model Fitting . 191

6.2.4 A Modified Ziegler–Nichols Formula . 194

6.3 Other PID Controller Tuning Formulae 197

6.3.1 Chien–Hrones–Reswick PID Tuning Algorithm . 197

6.3.2 Cohen–Coon Tuning Algorithm 198

6.3.3 Refined Ziegler–Nichols Tuning . 200

6.3.4 The Wang–Juang–Chan Tuning Formula . 203

6.3.5 Optimum PID Controller Design . 203

6.4 PID Controller Tuning Algorithms for Other Types of Plants 210

6.4.1 PD and PID Parameter Setting for IPDT Models . 210

6.4.2 PD and PID Parameters for FOIPDT Models . 211

6.4.3 PID Parameter Settings for Unstable FOPDT Models 213

6.5 PID_Tuner: A PID Controller Design Program for FOPDT Models . 213

6.6 Optimal Controller Design 216

6.6.1 Solutions to Optimization Problems with MATLAB . 2162007/1

page v

viii Contents

6.6.2 Optimal Controller Design 218

6.6.3 A MATLAB/Simulink-Based Optimal Controller Designer and Its

Applications 221

6.7 More Topics on PID Control . 225

6.7.1 Integral Windup and Anti-Windup PID Controllers 225

6.7.2 Automatic Tuning of PID Controllers . 227

6.7.3 Control Strategy Selection . 230

Problems 231

7 Robust Control Systems Design 235

7.1 Linear Quadratic Gaussian Control 236

7.1.1 LQG Problem . 236

7.1.2 LQG Problem Solutions Using MATLAB 236

7.1.3 LQG Control with Loop Transfer Recovery 241

7.2 General Descriptions of the Robust Control Problems 247

7.2.1 Small Gain Theorem 247

7.2.2 Unstructured Uncertainties 248

7.2.3 Robust Control Problems . 249

7.2.4 Model Representation Under MATLAB . 250

7.2.5 Dealing with Poles on the Imaginary Axis 251

7.3 H∞ Controller Design 253

7.3.1 Augmentations of the Model with Weighting Functions . 253

7.3.2 Model Augmentation with Weighting Function Under MATLAB 255

7.3.3 Weighted Sensitivity Problems: A Simple Case 256

7.3.4 H∞ Controller Design: The General Case 261

7.3.5 Optimal H∞ Controller Design 267

7.4 Optimal H2 Controller Design 271

7.5 The Effects of Weighting Functions in H∞ Control . 273

Problems 281

8 Fractional-Order Controller: An Introduction 283

8.1 Fractional-Order Calculus and Its Computations . 284

8.1.1 Definitions of Fractional-Order Calculus . 285

8.1.2 Properties of Fractional-Order Differentiations 286

8.2 Frequency and Time Domain Analysis of Fractional-Order Linear Systems . 287

8.2.1 Fractional-Order Transfer Function Modeling 287

8.2.2 Interconnections of Fractional-Order Blocks . 288

8.2.3 Frequency Domain Analysis of Linear Fractional-Order Systems 289

8.2.4 Time Domain Analysis of Fractional-Order Systems . 290

8.3 Filter Approximation to Fractional-Order Differentiations 292

8.3.1 Oustaloup’s Recursive Filter . 292

8.3.2 A Refined Oustaloup Filter 294

8.3.3 Simulink-Based Fractional-Order Nonlinear Differential Equation

Solutions 296

8.4 Model Reduction Techniques for Fractional-Order Systems . 298

8.5 Controller Design Studies for Fractional-Order Systems . 3002007/1

page ix

Contents ix

Problems 304

Appendix 307

CtrlLAB: A Feedback Control System Analysis and Design Tool 307

A.1 Introduction 307

A.1.1 What Is CtrlLAB? . 307

A.1.2 Installation and Requirements . 308

A.1.3 Execution of CtrlLAB . 308

A.2 Model Entry and Model Conversion . 309

A.2.1 Transfer Function Entry 309

A.2.2 Entering Other Model Representations 309

A.2.3 A More Complicated Model Entry 310

A.3 Model Transformation and Reduction 311

A.3.1 Model Display . 311

A.3.2 State Space Realizations 314

A.3.3 Model Reduction . 314

A.4 Feedback Control System Analysis 316

A.4.1 Frequency Domain Analysis 316

A.4.2 Time Domain Analysis 318

A.4.3 System Properties Analysis 321

A.5 Controller Design Examples . 322

A.5.1 Model-Based Controller Designs . 322

A.5.2 Design of PID Controllers . 322

A.5.3 Robust Controller Design . 325

A.6 Graphical Interface-Based Tools . 327

A.6.1 A Matrix Processor 327

A.6.2 A Graphical Curve Processor . 331

Problems 334

Bibliography 337

Index of MATLAB Functions 345

Index

Index

Ackermann’s algorithm, 166

actuator saturation, 220, 226, 302

additive uncertainty, 248

AIC, 40, 41

Akaike’s information criterion, 337

algebraic Riccati equation (ARE), 152,

158, 237, 238, 262

analytical solution, 66–70, 135, 160, 291,

321

anti-windup, 5, 226

ARE (algebraic Riccati equation), 152,

158, 237, 238, 262

automatic tuning, 207, 208, 227–228

relay, 5, 128, 207, 228, 229

Tsypkin’s method, 228–229

autonomous system, 67

balanced realization, 31–32, 58, 59,

101–103, 314

Schur’s, 102

Bass–Gura algorithm, 166

Bezout equation, 259, 260

bilinear transform, 251, 252, 266

block diagram, 1, 4, 20–24, 60, 111, 163,

201, 248, 309

Bode diagram, 7, 85–88, 317, 322

magnitude, 259, 262, 275, 279, 282,

300

bounded input–bounded output, 52

canonical form, 56, 57, 59, 62

controllable, 29

Jordanian, 29–31, 314

observable, 29

Caputo’s definition, 284, 286

cascade PI controller, 223

Cauchy’s definition, 284, 285

Chien–Hrones–Reswick formula, 181,

197–198

class, 287, 288

Cohen–Coon formula, 181, 198–200

complementary sensitivity function, 108,

243, 255

complex plane, 194, 251

connection

feedback, 21–22, 288

parallel, 20–21, 32, 288

series, 11, 20, 22, 288

constrained optimization, 131, 216, 217

control strategy, 2, 3, 157, 158, 162,

182–184, 230

Control Systems Toolbox, 2, 6, 8

controllability, 51, 55–60, 168

Gramian, 51, 58, 59, 179

staircase form, 56, 57

controllable canonical form, 29

controller

H∞, 236, 249, 262, 263, 266, 270, 325

H2, 272, 273, 325

fractional-order, 283, 284, 300

PD, 200, 210–212, 223, 300

PI, 123, 183, 186, 188, 189, 194–196,

198, 200, 203, 205–207, 222, 226,

300, 324

PID, 181–233

coprime factorization, 259–261

crossover frequency, 142, 146–149, 186,

189, 192, 207, 228, 297, 322

CtrlLAB, 5–7, 9, 307

damping ratio, 78, 81

iso-, 78, 81, 82

DC (direct-current) gain, 42, 192, 193

3492007/1

page 3

350 Index

decoupling, 5, 139, 171–174, 270

dynamic, 172, 174

with state feedback, 171–174

default discretization, 34

delayed system, 79, 120

describing function, 126, 228–229

descriptor system, 250

difference equation, 44

differential equation, 12, 14, 17, 283

fractional-order, 283, 290, 291

differential Riccati equation, 152, 158

differentiation, 14, 284

fractional-order, 285, 286, 292

direct-current (DC) gain, 42, 192, 193

discrete-time Riccati equation, 156

discretization, 34

disturbance, 53, 198, 203, 205, 235, 241,

248

rejection, 197, 198, 205–207

dominant poles, 81

dual, 29, 58, 169

dynamic decoupling, 172, 174

feedback connection, 21–22, 288

filter

Kalman, 236–239, 241–243, 245, 272

low-pass, 184, 254, 297

Oustaloup’s, 292–293, 298, 299

refined Oustaloup’s, 294–299

first-order lag and integrator plus dead

time (FOIPDT), 211, 212, 222

first-order plus dead time (FOPDT), 181,

186, 188, 193, 198, 209, 324

fixed step, 117

FOIPDT(first-order lag and integrator plus

dead time), 211, 212, 222

FOPDT (first-order plus dead time), 181,

186, 188, 193, 198, 209, 324

Fourier series expansion, 41, 229

fractional transformation representation,

249, 254

fractional-order, 283–305

calculus, 284, 286

controller, 283, 284, 300

differential equation, 283, 290, 291

differentiation, 285, 286, 292

Caputo’s definition, 284, 286

Cauchy’s definition, 284, 285

Grünwald–Letnikov definition,

284–286, 290, 292

Riemann–Liouville definition,

284–286

transfer function, 287–289, 298, 299

frequencyresponses, 5, 43, 64, 65, 84–92,

186, 191–192, 194, 317

gain margin, 88–89, 141, 144, 189, 244

general mixed sensitivity problem, 254

genetic algorithm (GA), 224

GeneticAlgorithm Optimization Toolbox

(GAOT), 9, 224

Grünwald–Letnikov definition, 284–286,

290, 292

H-norm, 65

H2-norm, 65–66, 98, 99, 236, 249

H∞-norm, 236, 249, 259, 261

H2 controller, 272, 273, 325

H∞ controller, 236, 249, 262, 263, 266,

270, 325

optimal, 267, 270, 274, 276, 280, 302,

325

standard, 249

Hankel matrix, 166

Hankel norm, 103

Hardy space, 3, 5, 65

identification

system, 4, 11, 35–45, 139, 194

impulse response, 51, 62, 63, 70, 75–77,

125, 250, 315, 319

impulse signal, 65, 76, 77, 98, 125, 320,

321

integral of absolute error (IAE), 98, 173,

203, 218, 223, 278, 301

integral of squared error (ISE), 98–100,

203–206

integrator plus dead time(IPDT), 181, 210

internal stability, 51–55

internal structure, 4, 17, 35, 57, 226

inverse system, 83

inverse Z transform, 692007/1

page 3

Index 351

IPDT(integrator plus dead time), 181, 210

ISE (integral of squared error) criterion,

98–100, 203–206

iso-damping, 78, 81, 82

iso-frequency, 78

ITAE (integral of absolute error) criterion, 98, 173, 203, 218, 223, 278, 301

Jordanian canonical form, 29–31, 314

Kalman decomposition, 51, 59–61

Kalman filter, 236–239, 241–243, 245,

272

L-norm, 65

L1-norm, 65

L2-norm, 65

L∞-norm, 65

L

p-norm, 64

Laplace transform, 11–14, 25, 62, 64,

68–69, 77, 98, 99, 286, 287, 290

inverse, 13, 69

lead-lag compensator, 139–151, 218, 308,

322

Lebesgue space, 65

limit cycle, 111, 126, 129, 131, 228, 229

linear quadratic Gaussian control (LQG),

3, 235–247

linear quadratic regulator (LQR), 3, 152,

156, 180, 216

linear system

fractional-order, 283–305

state space, 3, 4, 11, 17–19, 24–33, 51,

55–57, 59, 62, 64, 101–103, 281

transfer function, 4, 7, 11, 14–17,

19–22, 24–28, 44, 288, 295

linear time invariant (LTI), 14, 18, 131,

133, 134, 138, 151

logarithmicNyquist plot, see Nyquist plot,

logarithmic

loop transfer recovery (LTR), 3, 236, 243,

245, 247

low-pass filter, 184, 254, 297

LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian control),

3, 235–247

LQR (linear quadratic regulator), 3, 152,

156, 180, 216

LTI (linear time invariant), 14, 18, 131,

133, 134, 138, 151

LTR (loop transfer recovery), 3, 236, 243,

245, 247

Lyapunov equation, 10, 58

Maclaurin series, 62, 96, 97

magnitude Bode diagram, 259, 262, 275,

279, 282, 300

Markov parameters, 51, 63–64

MATLAB toolbox

CtrlLAB, 5–7, 9, 307

Genetic Algorithm Optimization Toolbox (GAOT), 9, 224

Optimal Controller Designer (OCD),

216, 221–225, 303

PID_ Tuner, 213–216

Robust Control, 9, 235, 250–252, 255

Simulink, 111–135, 296–298

Symbolic, 9, 13, 14, 68–70

System Identification, 9, 36, 39

measurement noise, 53, 239

minimum

phase, 164, 257–259, 261

realization, 21, 32–33, 44, 61, 62

sensitivity problem, 257, 258

Mittag–Leffler function, 291, 292

mixed stability, 262

model conversion, 4, 11, 25, 26, 38, 43,

44, 67

model mismatch, 235

model reduction, 4, 51, 58, 59, 92–103,

194, 271, 293, 314–316

optimal Hankel norm approximation,

103, 314

Padé approximation, 92, 94, 96, 97, 99,

120, 133, 298, 314

Routh approximation, 94, 95, 314

Schur’s balanced realization, 102

suboptimal reduction, 191, 215, 298,

299, 314

multiple input–multiple output, 7, 16

multiplicative uncertainty, 248

multivariable system, 16, 44–45, 120,

171–1742007/1

page 3

352 Index

natural frequency, 174, 180, 282, 325

Nichols chart, 85, 148–151, 289

nominal value, 262, 301

nonminimum phase model, 246, 259,

261–267

nonlinear system, 5, 17, 111, 112, 116,

126, 129, 131–134, 136, 313, 319, 321

nonlinearity, 111, 112, 127, 128, 228, 310

double-valued, 111, 126–128

piecewise linear, 111, 126

relay, 128, 228, 229

saturation, 112, 123, 224

single-valued, 111, 126–128

static, 126, 128, 228

Nyquist plot, 42, 51, 84, 85, 87–90

atan, 90

logarithmic, 90–92

Nyquist Theorem, 87, 88

observability, 51, 57–60

Gramian, 58, 59

staircase form, 58

observable canonical form, 29

observer, 3, 139, 159–162, 164, 165, 169,

236, 262

observer-based

controller, 139, 322

regulator, 165, 169

OCD(Optimal ControllerDesigner), 216,

221–225, 303

operating point, 131, 132

optimal control, 181, 216, 218–225

Optimal ControllerDesigner(OCD), 216,

221–225, 303

optimalHankel norm approximation, 103,

314

optimization, 99, 181, 216–219, 221, 223,

224, 239

constrained, 131, 216, 217

Genetic Algorithm Toolbox, 9, 224

unconstrained, 216–217

optimum PID controller, 181, 209, 324

ordinary differential equations(ODE), 12,

14, 17, 283

Oustaloup recursive approximation,

292–293, 298, 299

refined, 294–299

overshoot, 71, 72, 74, 196–198

Padé approximation, 92, 94, 96, 97, 99,

120, 133, 298, 314

parallel connection, 20–21, 32, 288

PD controller, 200, 210–212, 223, 300

phase margin, 88–89, 141, 144, 146–151,

175, 240, 243, 244, 281, 321, 322

assignment, 207

PI controller, 183, 186, 188, 189, 194–196

PIλDµ controller, 300

PID controller, 181–233

anti-windup, 5, 226

Chien–Hrones–Reswick, 181, 197–198

Cohen–Coon, 181, 198–200

for FOIPDT plant, 211, 212, 222

for IPDT plant, 181, 210

fractional-order, 300

modified Ziegler–Nichols, 181, 202

optimum setting, 181, 209, 324

phase margin assignment, 207

refinedZiegler–Nichols, 181, 200–202,

323

Wang–Juang–Chan, 181, 203, 300

Ziegler–Nichols, 181, 185–198, 200–202,

209, 323

PID_ Tuner, 213–216

plant augmentation, 247, 249, 255

plant model, 2, 53, 82

FOIPDT, 211, 212, 222

FOPDT, 181, 186, 188, 193, 198, 209,

324

IPDT, 181, 210

minimum phase, 164, 257–259, 261

nonminimum phase, 246, 259, 261–267

unstable FOPDT, 213

pole placement, 139, 165–170, 173, 260

Ackermann’s algorithm, 166

Bass–Gura’s algorithm, 166

robust algorithm, 167–169

prefilter, 2

pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS),

42–442007/1

page 3

Index 353

ramp response, 77

realization, 58, 59, 61, 62, 101, 102, 163,

307, 314

balanced, 31–32, 58, 59, 101–103, 314

minimum, 21, 32–33, 44, 61, 62

reduced-order model, 59, 92–95, 98, 298,

299, 315

refined Oustaloup recursive approximation, 294–299

refinedZiegler–Nichols tuning, 181, 200–202,

323

relay, 128, 228, 229

autotuning, 5, 207, 228

Riccati equation, 155, 156, 237, 241, 262

algebraic, 152, 158, 237, 238, 262

differential, 152, 158

discrete-time, 156

Riemann–Liouville definition, 284–286

rise time, 72, 73

Robust Control Toolbox, 235, 250–252,

255, 278

robust pole placement algorithm, 167–169

root locus, 3, 51, 78–83, 316, 317

Routh approximation, 94, 95, 314

sampling interval, 15, 17, 19, 39, 74, 87,

122, 123

saturation, 112, 123, 224

actuator, 220, 226, 302

Schur decomposition, 329

Schur’s balanced realization, 102

sensitivity function, 243, 255, 256, 259,

275, 278

sensitivity problem, 254, 256, 265, 325

general mixed, 262

minimum, 257, 258

series connection, 11, 20, 22, 288

settling time, 72, 74

similarity transformation, 28, 59–62

Simulink, 111–135, 296–298

single input–single output, 7, 16

SISOTool, 175–177

small gain theorem, 247–248

stability, 3, 51–55, 84, 86–88, 90, 94, 95

assessment, 51–53

internal, 51–55

stability margins, 3, 241

stabilizing controller, 249, 257, 260, 271

standard transfer function, 11, 173, 174,

278

state augmentation, 67, 68, 254

state feedback, 152, 153, 155, 156,

163–167, 171–174, 236, 239, 243, 272

decoupling with, 171–174

state space, 3, 4, 11, 17–19, 24–33, 51,

55–57, 59, 62, 64, 101–103

steady-state, 42

error, 183, 189, 210, 211, 322

response, 62, 64, 231

value, 71, 72, 152, 192, 266

step response, 70, 73–75, 121, 291, 299,

301–303

suboptimal reduction, 191, 215, 298, 299,

314

Symbolic Toolbox, 9, 13, 14, 68–70

System Identification Toolbox, 4, 9, 11,

35–45, 139, 194

Taylor series expansion, 62–64, 92, 294

time domain response, 77, 87, 290

impulseresponse, 51, 62, 63, 70, 75–77,

125, 250, 315, 319

ramp response, 77

step response, 70, 73–75, 121, 291,

299, 301–303

time moment, 62–63, 96

time varying system, 111, 118, 123–125,

152

transfer function, 4, 7, 11, 14–17, 19–22,

24–28, 44, 288, 295

discrete-time, 16, 35, 39, 42, 43, 69,

79, 134

fractional-order, 287–289, 298, 299

matrix, 16, 24, 25, 28, 38, 44, 45, 120,

172

standard, 11, 173, 174, 278

transmission zero, 27, 243

tree variable, 250–252, 255, 262, 268

Tsypkin’s method, 228–229

Tustin transform, 252

bilinear, 251, 252, 266

two degrees-of-freedom control, 22007/1

page 3

354 Index

two-port state-space, 250, 253, 255, 256,

261–263, 268, 270, 272

uncertainty, 64, 159, 235, 247, 248, 262, 269

additive, 248

multiplicative, 248

unstructured uncertainty, 248–249

unconstrained optimization, 216–217

undershoot, 266

unity negative feedback, 53, 78, 87, 88,

163, 289

unstable FOPDT(first-order plus dead time),

213

variable step, 117

Wang–Juang–Chanformula, 181, 203, 300

weightingfunction, 99, 236, 243, 253–256,

258, 262, 273–281, 302, 325

weighting matrix, 152, 154, 157, 158,

164, 180

well-posedness, 53–54, 248

Youla parameterization, 256, 257

Z transform, 16

inverse, 69

zero initial conditions, 13, 14, 25, 106

zero-order-hold (ZOH), 34, 121, 123

zero-pole-gain model, 19, 25–27, 32, 94,

112

Ziegler–Nichols formula, 181, 185–198,

200–202, 209, 323

modified algorithm, 181, 202

refined, 181, 200–202, 323

ZOH (zero-order-hold), 34, 121, 123

**كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Investigation of Oil Flow and Heat Transfer in Transformer Radiator

A Thesis Submitted to

The Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences of

Izmir Institute of Technology

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

in Energy Engineering

by

Özben KAYMAZ

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION . 1

1.1. What is Transformer? . 5

1.2. Transformer Losses . 14

1.3. Cooling Modes 14

1.3.1. ONAN (Oil Natural – Air Natural) 16

1.3.2. ONAF (Oil Natural – Air Forced) . 17

1.3.3. OFAF (Oil Forced – Air Forced) . 18

1.3.4. ODAF (Oil Directed Air Forced) 18

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 20

2.1. Transformer Life . 20

2.2. Reducing the Hot-spot Temperature . 21

2.3. Further Developments of New Methods . 24

2.4. Comparison Between CFD Simulations and Experiments . 25

2.5. Porous Media Approach in CFD Simulations 30

2.6. Complete and Slice Models 31

2.7. Transformer Winding 35

2.8. Transformer Cooling Fluids 37

2.9. Overview of Thesis According to Literature 39

CHAPTER 3. TRANSFORMER OILS 41

CHAPTER 4. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS . 48

4.1. Problem Statement 50

4.2. Modelling 51

4.3. Meshing . 53

4.4. General Settings 55

4.5. Viscous Model 55

4.6. Material Properties 56vii

4.7. Boundary Conditions 58

4.8. Solution . 60

CHAPTER 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 62

5.1. CFD Results 63

5.1.1. Temperature Distribution 63

5.1.2. Velocity Vectors 65

5.1.3. Velocity Streamlines . 66

5.1.4. Heat Flux . 69

5.1.5. Comparison of Oils . 71

5.1.6. Dimensionless Numbers 74

5.2. Mesh Independence 82

CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION . 84

REFERENCES .

**كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Solar Energy Potential and Assessment of CSP Plant Accounting for Sustainability in Sudan

Dr. Salaheldin Hassabelgabo Abdelrazig Ibrahim, Dr. Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology,

Nile Valley University, Atbara – Sudan

Abstract— Sudan is one of the East Africa countries that

have endured considerable economic strain with the loss of

substantial oil following the separation of South Sudan in

July 2011, but it is lucky enough to have an abundant solar

energy potential resources with plenty of water resources

and a large area of lands. River Nile State (RNS) one of

Sudan states characterized by a huge potential of national

resources. The location of RNS is covered by a Direct

Normal Radiation above 1800 kWh/m2/year, the resources

available in the State is quite sufficient to support nexus

between energy, food, water, and land use to offers an

approach for multi-scale, integrated assessment of this

nexus. The analysis and performance of the proposed

parabolic trough power plant are done by using SAM

software created by National Renewable Energy

Laboratory’s (NREL) SAM software. The selected

parabolic trough concentrated power plant system has a

capacity of 100 MW nameplate capacity and 6 hours

thermal Energy storage (TES). The simulation of solar

energy potential contribution (quantity) and convenience

(quality) of concentrated solar power (CSP) as alternative

sources for the production of electricity in River Nile State.

The annual electricity power generated for the 6 localities

of River Nile State is calculated to be 389 GWh Abu

Hamad, 381 GWh Atbra, 385 GWh Barbar, 383 GWh El

Damer, El Matammah 364 GWh and 382 GWh Shendi

respectively. For sustainability, the results show that fossil

fuel can be the preserve considerably in this state and can

achieve about 76 Million Cubic Meters of CO2 emissionreducing and 31 Million Cubic Meters Natural gas-saving

with the line of the sustainable development program. For

nexus issues, solar field area (land) is 587 acres with nonsolar field land area with a multiplier of 1.4 which gives a

total plant area of 822 acres (8.22 acres per MW of power

capacity) with Average solar radiation 2,587 Wh/m2/year.

The energy outputs are: 562 GWh thermal annually

(provided by solar radiation); and 389 electricity annually

(produced by the plant) for Abu Hamad locality the higher

solar potential resources, Besides a Total Annual Water

usage is 84,238 m3.

Keywords— River Nile State, CSP, Abu Hamad, Parabolic trough, Sudan

CONCLUSION

The National resources available in River Nile State is quite

sufficient to support nexus between energy, food, water and

land use to offers an approach for multi-scale, integrated

assessment of this nexus. The assessment of the solar energy

potential contribution (quantity) and convenience (quality) of

concentrated solar power (CSP) as alternative sources for the

production of electricity in River Nile State concluded that:

- The site of Abu Hamad locality has the highest solar

potential to generate electricity followed by Barbar,

El Damer, Atbara, and Shendi and finally El

Matammah has the lowest potential among them. - From the sites analysed all state localities have areas

with plenty of water and therefore no restrictions on

using parabolic trough technique. - Fossil fuel can be preserved considerably in these

areas and can obtain about 76 Million Cubic Meters

of CO2 emission-reducing and about 31 Million

Cubic Meters Natural gas-saving with the line of the

sustainable development program.

I. For Abu Hamad locality, CSP the size

assumption for power plant of 100MW yield

a result of Energy, Land and Water nexus as

flows: The solar field area is 587 acres with

non-solar field land area multiplier 1.4

which gives a total plant area of 822 acres

(8.22 acres per MW of power capacity).

II. Average solar radiation 2,587 Wh/m2/year.

The outputs are 562 GWh thermal annually

(provided by solar radiation); and 389

electricity annually (produced by the plant).

III. Total Annual Water usage is 84,238 m3

**لمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.netThe Unzip Password : books-world.net**

Mark Hudson Beale

Martin T. Hagan

Howard B. Demuth

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments . viii

Getting Started

Deep Learning Toolbox Product Description 1-2

Get Started with Deep Network Designer 1-3

Try Deep Learning in 10 Lines of MATLAB Code . 1-13

Classify Image Using Pretrained Network . 1-15

Get Started with Transfer Learning 1-17

Create Simple Image Classification Network 1-26

Create Simple Sequence Classification Network Using Deep Network

Designer 1-29

Shallow Networks for Pattern Recognition, Clustering and Time Series

. 1-38

Shallow Network Apps and Functions in Deep Learning Toolbox . 1-38

Deep Learning Toolbox Applications 1-39

Shallow Neural Network Design Steps 1-40

Fit Data with a Shallow Neural Network 1-42

Defining a Problem . 1-42

Using the Neural Network Fitting App 1-42

Using Command-Line Functions . 1-55

Classify Patterns with a Shallow Neural Network . 1-63

Defining a Problem . 1-63

Using the Neural Network Pattern Recognition App 1-64

Using Command-Line Functions . 1-76

Cluster Data with a Self-Organizing Map . 1-83

Defining a Problem . 1-83

Using the Neural Network Clustering App . 1-83

Using Command-Line Functions . 1-95

v

ContentsShallow Neural Network Time-Series Prediction and Modeling 1-100

Defining a Problem 1-100

Using the Neural Network Time Series App . 1-100

Using Command-Line Functions 1-114

Train Shallow Networks on CPUs and GPUs 1-123

Parallel Computing Toolbox . 1-123

Parallel CPU Workers 1-123

GPU Computing 1-124

Multiple GPU/CPU Computing . 1-124

Cluster Computing with MATLAB Parallel Server . 1-124

Load Balancing, Large Problems, and Beyond 1-125

Sample Data Sets for Shallow Neural Networks . 1-126

Shallow Neural Networks Glossary

Shallow Neural Networks Glossary

ADALINE Acronym for a linear neuron: ADAptive LINear Element.

adaption Training method that proceeds through the specified sequence of

inputs, calculating the output, error, and network adjustment for each

input vector in the sequence as the inputs are presented.

adaptive filter Network that contains delays and whose weights are adjusted after

each new input vector is presented. The network adapts to changes in

the input signal properties if such occur. This kind of filter is used in

long distance telephone lines to cancel echoes.

adaptive learning rate Learning rate that is adjusted according to an algorithm during

training to minimize training time.

architecture Description of the number of the layers in a neural network, each

layer’s transfer function, the number of neurons per layer, and the

connections between layers.

backpropagation

learning rule

Learning rule in which weights and biases are adjusted by errorderivative (delta) vectors backpropagated through the network.

Backpropagation is commonly applied to feedforward multilayer

networks. Sometimes this rule is called the generalized delta rule.

backtracking search Linear search routine that begins with a step multiplier of 1 and then

backtracks until an acceptable reduction in performance is obtained.

batch Matrix of input (or target) vectors applied to the network

simultaneously. Changes to the network weights and biases are made

just once for the entire set of vectors in the input matrix. (The term

batch is being replaced by the more descriptive expression

“concurrent vectors.”)

batching Process of presenting a set of input vectors for simultaneous

calculation of a matrix of output vectors and/or new weights and

biases.

Bayesian framework Assumes that the weights and biases of the network are random

variables with specified distributions.

BFGS quasi-Newton

algorithm

Variation of Newton’s optimization algorithm, in which an

approximation of the Hessian matrix is obtained from gradients

computed at each iteration of the algorithm.

bias Neuron parameter that is summed with the neuron’s weighted inputs

and passed through the neuron’s transfer function to generate the

neuron’s output.

bias vector Column vector of bias values for a layer of neurons.

Brent’s search Linear search that is a hybrid of the golden section search and a

quadratic interpolation.

Glossary-1cascade-forward

network

Layered network in which each layer only receives inputs from

previous layers.

Charalambous’ search Hybrid line search that uses a cubic interpolation together with a type

of sectioning.

classification Association of an input vector with a particular target vector.

competitive layer Layer of neurons in which only the neuron with maximum net input

has an output of 1 and all other neurons have an output of 0. Neurons

compete with each other for the right to respond to a given input

vector.

competitive learning Unsupervised training of a competitive layer with the instar rule or

Kohonen rule. Individual neurons learn to become feature detectors.

After training, the layer categorizes input vectors among its neurons.

competitive transfer

function

Accepts a net input vector for a layer and returns neuron outputs of 0

for all neurons except for the winner, the neuron associated with the

most positive element of the net input n.

concurrent input vectors Name given to a matrix of input vectors that are to be presented to a

network simultaneously. All the vectors in the matrix are used in

making just one set of changes in the weights and biases.

conjugate gradient

algorithm

In the conjugate gradient algorithms, a search is performed along

conjugate directions, which produces generally faster convergence

than a search along the steepest descent directions.

connection One-way link between neurons in a network.

connection strength Strength of a link between two neurons in a network. The strength,

often called weight, determines the effect that one neuron has on

another.

cycle Single presentation of an input vector, calculation of output, and new

weights and biases.

dead neuron Competitive layer neuron that never won any competition during

training and so has not become a useful feature detector. Dead

neurons do not respond to any of the training vectors.

decision boundary Line, determined by the weight and bias vectors, for which the net

input n is zero.

delta rule See Widrow-Hoff learning rule.

delta vector The delta vector for a layer is the derivative of a network’s output

error with respect to that layer’s net input vector.

distance Distance between neurons, calculated from their positions with a

distance function.

distance function Particular way of calculating distance, such as the Euclidean distance

between two vectors.

Glossary

Glossary-2early stopping Technique based on dividing the data into three subsets. The first

subset is the training set, used for computing the gradient and

updating the network weights and biases. The second subset is the

validation set. When the validation error increases for a specified

number of iterations, the training is stopped, and the weights and

biases at the minimum of the validation error are returned. The third

subset is the test set. It is used to verify the network design.

epoch Presentation of the set of training (input and/or target) vectors to a

network and the calculation of new weights and biases. Note that

training vectors can be presented one at a time or all together in a

batch.

error jumping Sudden increase in a network’s sum-squared error during training.

This is often due to too large a learning rate.

error ratio Training parameter used with adaptive learning rate and momentum

training of backpropagation networks.

error vector Difference between a network’s output vector in response to an input

vector and an associated target output vector.

feedback network Network with connections from a layer’s output to that layer’s input.

The feedback connection can be direct or pass through several layers.

feedforward network Layered network in which each layer only receives inputs from

previous layers.

Fletcher-Reeves update Method for computing a set of conjugate directions. These directions

are used as search directions as part of a conjugate gradient

optimization procedure.

function approximation Task performed by a network trained to respond to inputs with an

approximation of a desired function.

generalization Attribute of a network whose output for a new input vector tends to be

close to outputs for similar input vectors in its training set.

generalized regression

network

Approximates a continuous function to an arbitrary accuracy, given a

sufficient number of hidden neurons.

global minimum Lowest value of a function over the entire range of its input

parameters. Gradient descent methods adjust weights and biases in

order to find the global minimum of error for a network.

golden section search Linear search that does not require the calculation of the slope. The

interval containing the minimum of the performance is subdivided at

each iteration of the search, and one subdivision is eliminated at each

iteration.

gradient descent Process of making changes to weights and biases, where the changes

are proportional to the derivatives of network error with respect to

those weights and biases. This is done to minimize network error.

Glossary

Glossary-3hard-limit transfer

function

Transfer function that maps inputs greater than or equal to 0 to 1, and

all other values to 0.

Hebb learning rule Historically the first proposed learning rule for neurons. Weights are

adjusted proportional to the product of the outputs of pre- and

postweight neurons.

hidden layer Layer of a network that is not connected to the network output (for

instance, the first layer of a two-layer feedforward network).

home neuron Neuron at the center of a neighborhood.

hybrid bisection-cubic

search

Line search that combines bisection and cubic interpolation.

initialization Process of setting the network weights and biases to their original

values.

input layer Layer of neurons receiving inputs directly from outside the network.

input space Range of all possible input vectors.

input vector Vector presented to the network.

input weight vector Row vector of weights going to a neuron.

input weights Weights connecting network inputs to layers.

Jacobian matrix Contains the first derivatives of the network errors with respect to the

weights and biases.

Kohonen learning rule Learning rule that trains a selected neuron’s weight vectors to take on

the values of the current input vector.

layer Group of neurons having connections to the same inputs and sending

outputs to the same destinations.

layer diagram Network architecture figure showing the layers and the weight

matrices connecting them. Each layer’s transfer function is indicated

with a symbol. Sizes of input, output, bias, and weight matrices are

shown. Individual neurons and connections are not shown.

layer weights Weights connecting layers to other layers. Such weights need to have

nonzero delays if they form a recurrent connection (i.e., a loop).

learning Process by which weights and biases are adjusted to achieve some

desired network behavior.

learning rate Training parameter that controls the size of weight and bias changes

during learning.

learning rule Method of deriving the next changes that might be made in a network

or a procedure for modifying the weights and biases of a network.

Glossary

Glossary-4Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm that trains a neural network 10 to 100 times faster than the

usual gradient descent backpropagation method. It always computes

the approximate Hessian matrix, which has dimensions n-by-n.

line search function Procedure for searching along a given search direction (line) to locate

the minimum of the network performance.

linear transfer function Transfer function that produces its input as its output.

link distance Number of links, or steps, that must be taken to get to the neuron

under consideration.

local minimum Minimum of a function over a limited range of input values. A local

minimum might not be the global minimum.

log-sigmoid transfer

function

Squashing function of the form shown below that maps the input to

the interval (0,1). (The toolbox function is logsig.)

f(n) = 1

1 + e−n

Manhattan distance The Manhattan distance between two vectors x and y is calculated as

D = sum(abs(x-y))

maximum performance

increase

Maximum amount by which the performance is allowed to increase in

one iteration of the variable learning rate training algorithm.

maximum step size Maximum step size allowed during a linear search. The magnitude of

the weight vector is not allowed to increase by more than this

maximum step size in one iteration of a training algorithm.

mean square error

function

Performance function that calculates the average squared error

between the network outputs a and the target outputs t.

momentum Technique often used to make it less likely for a backpropagation

network to get caught in a shallow minimum.

momentum constant Training parameter that controls how much momentum is used.

mu parameter Initial value for the scalar µ.

neighborhood Group of neurons within a specified distance of a particular neuron.

The neighborhood is specified by the indices for all the neurons that

lie within a radius d of the winning neuron i*:

Ni(d) = {j,dij ≤ d}

net input vector Combination, in a layer, of all the layer’s weighted input vectors with

its bias.

neuron Basic processing element of a neural network. Includes weights and

bias, a summing junction, and an output transfer function. Artificial

neurons, such as those simulated and trained with this toolbox, are

abstractions of biological neurons.

Glossary

Glossary-5neuron diagram Network architecture figure showing the neurons and the weights

connecting them. Each neuron’s transfer function is indicated with a

symbol.

ordering phase Period of training during which neuron weights are expected to order

themselves in the input space consistent with the associated neuron

positions.

output layer Layer whose output is passed to the world outside the network.

output vector Output of a neural network. Each element of the output vector is the

output of a neuron.

output weight vector Column vector of weights coming from a neuron or input. (See also

outstar learning rule.)

outstar learning rule Learning rule that trains a neuron’s (or input’s) output weight vector

to take on the values of the current output vector of the postweight

layer. Changes in the weights are proportional to the neuron’s output.

overfitting Case in which the error on the training set is driven to a very small

value, but when new data is presented to the network, the error is

large.

pass Each traverse through all the training input and target vectors.

pattern A vector.

pattern association Task performed by a network trained to respond with the correct

output vector for each input vector presented.

pattern recognition Task performed by a network trained to respond when an input vector

close to a learned vector is presented. The network “recognizes” the

input as one of the original target vectors.

perceptron Single-layer network with a hard-limit transfer function. This network

is often trained with the perceptron learning rule.

perceptron learning rule Learning rule for training single-layer hard-limit networks. It is

guaranteed to result in a perfectly functioning network in finite time,

given that the network is capable of doing so.

performance Behavior of a network.

performance function Commonly the mean squared error of the network outputs. However,

the toolbox also considers other performance functions. Type help

nnperformance for a list of performance functions.

Polak-Ribiére update Method for computing a set of conjugate directions. These directions

are used as search directions as part of a conjugate gradient

optimization procedure.

positive linear transfer

function

Transfer function that produces an output of zero for negative inputs

and an output equal to the input for positive inputs.

Glossary

Glossary-6postprocessing Converts normalized outputs back into the same units that were used

for the original targets.

Powell-Beale restarts Method for computing a set of conjugate directions. These directions

are used as search directions as part of a conjugate gradient

optimization procedure. This procedure also periodically resets the

search direction to the negative of the gradient.

preprocessing Transformation of the input or target data before it is presented to the

neural network.

principal component

analysis

Orthogonalize the components of network input vectors. This

procedure can also reduce the dimension of the input vectors by

eliminating redundant components.

quasi-Newton algorithm Class of optimization algorithm based on Newton’s method. An

approximate Hessian matrix is computed at each iteration of the

algorithm based on the gradients.

radial basis networks Neural network that can be designed directly by fitting special

response elements where they will do the most good.

radial basis transfer

function

The transfer function for a radial basis neuron is

radbas(n) = e−n2

regularization Modification of the performance function, which is normally chosen to

be the sum of squares of the network errors on the training set, by

adding some fraction of the squares of the network weights.

resilient

backpropagation

Training algorithm that eliminates the harmful effect of having a small

slope at the extreme ends of the sigmoid squashing transfer functions.

saturating linear

transfer function

Function that is linear in the interval (-1,+1) and saturates outside

this interval to -1 or +1. (The toolbox function is satlin.)

scaled conjugate

gradient algorithm

Avoids the time-consuming line search of the standard conjugate

gradient algorithm.

sequential input vectors Set of vectors that are to be presented to a network one after the

other. The network weights and biases are adjusted on the

presentation of each input vector.

sigma parameter Determines the change in weight for the calculation of the

approximate Hessian matrix in the scaled conjugate gradient

algorithm.

sigmoid Monotonic S-shaped function that maps numbers in the interval (-∞,∞)

to a finite interval such as (-1,+1) or (0,1).

simulation Takes the network input p, and the network object net, and returns

the network outputs a.

spread constant Distance an input vector must be from a neuron’s weight vector to

produce an output of 0.5.

Glossary

Glossary-7squashing function Monotonically increasing function that takes input values between -∞

and +∞ and returns values in a finite interval.

star learning rule Learning rule that trains a neuron’s weight vector to take on the

values of the current input vector. Changes in the weights are

proportional to the neuron’s output.

sum-squared error Sum of squared differences between the network targets and actual

outputs for a given input vector or set of vectors.

supervised learning Learning process in which changes in a network’s weights and biases

are due to the intervention of any external teacher. The teacher

typically provides output targets.

symmetric hard-limit

transfer function

Transfer that maps inputs greater than or equal to 0 to +1, and all

other values to -1.

symmetric saturating

linear transfer function

Produces the input as its output as long as the input is in the range -1

to 1. Outside that range the output is -1 and +1, respectively.

tan-sigmoid transfer

function

Squashing function of the form shown below that maps the input to

the interval (-1,1). (The toolbox function is tansig.)

f(n) = 1

1 + e−n

tapped delay line Sequential set of delays with outputs available at each delay output.

target vector Desired output vector for a given input vector.

test vectors Set of input vectors (not used directly in training) that is used to test

the trained network.

topology functions Ways to arrange the neurons in a grid, box, hexagonal, or random

topology.

training Procedure whereby a network is adjusted to do a particular job.

Commonly viewed as an offline job, as opposed to an adjustment made

during each time interval, as is done in adaptive training.

training vector Input and/or target vector used to train a network.

transfer function Function that maps a neuron’s (or layer’s) net output n to its actual

output.

tuning phase Period of SOFM training during which weights are expected to spread

out relatively evenly over the input space while retaining their

topological order found during the ordering phase.

underdetermined

system

System that has more variables than constraints.

unsupervised learning Learning process in which changes in a network’s weights and biases

are not due to the intervention of any external teacher. Commonly

Glossary

Glossary-8changes are a function of the current network input vectors, output

vectors, and previous weights and biases.

update Make a change in weights and biases. The update can occur after

presentation of a single input vector or after accumulating changes

over several input vectors.

validation vectors Set of input vectors (not used directly in training) that is used to

monitor training progress so as to keep the network from overfitting.

weight function Weight functions apply weights to an input to get weighted inputs, as

specified by a particular function.

weight matrix Matrix containing connection strengths from a layer’s inputs to its

neurons. The element w

i,j of a weight matrix W refers to the connection

strength from input j to neuron i.

weighted input vector Result of applying a weight to a layer’s input, whether it is a network

input or the output of another layer.

Widrow-Hoff learning

rule

Learning rule used to train single-layer linear networks. This rule is

the predecessor of the backpropagation rule and is sometimes

referred to as the delta rule.

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