The L-function L(s, χ) of χ, initially defined on Re(s) 1 by the convergent
Euler product of local L-factors L(s, χv) over all places v, is continued to a mero-
morphic function on C satisfying the functional equation
L(s, χ) = W
(χ)DF/2−sN(fχ)1/2−s 1
L(1 s, ¯). χ (2.3)
The function L(s, χ) is holomorphic except possible simple poles at s = 0, 1
Ress=1L(s, χ) = δ(χ = 1) vol(F
Ress=0L(s, χ) = −δ(χ = 1)
DF/2vol(F 1 ×\A1).
For any oF -ideal a, let xa = (xa,v) Afin
be an idele such that xa,v =
all v Σfin, where ordv(a) Z is defined by aov = pv
We designate the value
χ(xa) by ˜(a). χ
If χ is the trivial character 1, then L(s, 1) coincides with the Dedekind zeta
function multiplied with the gamma factor, which is denoted by ζF (s) in this article.
The Euler product of L(s, χv) over v Σfin is denoted by Lfin(s, χ).
2.4.3. Let Ξ0 be the set of all the unramified unitary idele-class character of
There exists a constant C1 such that Lfin(s, χ) has no zero in a region of the
form Re(s) 1 C1/ log{q(χ)(2 + |Ims|)}, |Ims| = 0 ([21, Theorem 5.10]). Then,
from the proof of [50, Theorem 3.11], we obtain the estimations
|Lfin(1 + it,
= O(log q(χ| |A
Lfin(1 + it, χ)/Lfin(1 + it, χ) = O(log q(χ| |A
t R
with the implied constants independent of χ Ξ0. It is known that there exists
θ R such that the L-series Lfin(s, η) for an arbitrary idele-class character η of F
admits a bound on the critical line Re(s) = 1/2 of the form
|Lfin (1/2 + it, η)| q(η||A
t R (2.6)
with the implied constant independent of η. Actually, the bound with θ = 0 (the
convexity bound) is known for a while (see [33, 3.1]). Any bound (2.6) with θ 0
is called a subconvexity bound, which is established by Michel and Venkatesh in
this generality ([32]).
2.4.4. Let UF
be the set of totally positive unit of oF , viewed as a subset of
F∞ by the natural embeding. Then, the additive group log UF
= {(lv)v∈Σ∞ | lv
R, (exp(lv))v UF
} is a lattice in the dF 1 dimensional real vector space V =
{(xv)v∈Σ∞ | xv R,

xv = 0 }. Let L0 be the dual lattice of log UF
in V , i.e.,
L0 = {(bv)v∈Σ∞ V |
bvlv Z (∀(lv) log UF
Let χ be a unitary idele-class character of F ×. The exponents a(χv) (v Σ∞) of
χ at the archimedean places are purely imaginary numbers with the constraint
a(χv) = 0,
which comes from our convention χ|R+
= 1. If we set bv(χ) = Im{a(χv)} for
v Σ∞, then the vector b(χ) = (bv(χ)) belongs to the lattice L0. The mapping
χ b(χ) is a surjection from Ξ0 onto L0 whose kernel Ξ0
coincides with the set of
finite order characters in Ξ0. Note that Ξ0
is a finite abelian group with order hF ,
the class number of F .
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