3.5. Properties of reductive k-groups. We next review the properties of reductive
groups. The reference for these is [5].
Let G be a connected reductive fc-group. Let S be a maximal £split torus of G,
i.e., a A:-subtorus of G which is Asplit and maximal for these properties. Any two
such tori are conjugate over k, i.e., by an element of G(k). Their dimension is called
the k-rank ofG.
The root system 0(G9 S) of G with respect to S (see 2.1) is called the relative root
system of G (notation k0 or k0(G)). This is indeed a root system in the sense of
[7], lying in the subspace V of X*(S) ® Q spanned by k0. Its Weyl group is the
relative Weyl group of G (notation kW or kW(G)). Let N(S) and Z(S) denote nor-
malizer and centralizer of S in G; these are ^-subgroups. Then N(S)/Z(S) operates
0 and in V. In fact it can be identified with
W. Any coset of N{S)\Z(S) can be
represented by an element in N(S) (k).
Z(S) is a connected reductive Agroup. Its derived group Z{S)' is a semisimple
£-group which is anisotropic. To a certain extent G can be recovered from Z(S)'
and the relative root system
0 (for details see [19]). There is a decomposition of the
Lie algebra g of G:
9 = 9 o + S
where for cceX*(S) we have defined ga = {Xe$\Ad(s)X = saX, seS}. Then
g0 is the Lie algebra of Z(S). If a e
0 there is a unique unipotent ^-subgroup C/a
of G normalized by S, such that its Lie algebra is ga.
In the absolute case (k = £) S is a maximal torus, 0 is the ordinary root system
and the Ua are as in 2.3. If (7 is split over k then 5 is a maximal torus of G and k0
coincides with the absolute root system 0.
In the general case k0 need not be reduced, nor is dim ga = dim Ua always 1.
3.6. Parabolic subgroups. Recall that a parabolic subgroup P of an algebraic
group G is a closed subgroup such that G/P is a projective variety. Equivalently, P
is parabolic if P contains a Borel subgroup of G.
Now let G be as in 3.5. Then the minimal parabolic Asubgroups of G are con-
jugate over k. If P is one, there is a maximal Asplit torus of G such that P is the
semidirect product of /:-groups P = Z(S) i?«(/ ) (RU(P) denotes the unipotent
radical). There is an ordering of
0 such that P is generated by Z(S) and the Ua
of 3.5 with a 0. The minimal parabolic Ar-subgroups containing a given 5 cor-
respond to the Weyl chambers of k0. They are permuted simply transitively by the
relative Weyl group.
Fix an ordering of k0 and let kA be the basis of k0 defined by it. For any subset
0 a kA denote by P0 the subgroup of G generated by Z(S) and the U where
a e k0 is a linear combination of the roots of
J in which all roots not in 0 occur
with a coefficient ^ 0. Then PkJ = G, P^ = P and P6 ZD P.
The Pe are the standard parabolic subgroups of G containing P. Any parabolic
A:-subgroup Q of G is Ar-conjugate to a unique iV If 5^ is the identity component of
Qae0(Ker 0) then Se is a /:-split torus of G and we have PQ = Z(55) Ru(Pe),
a semidirect product of £groups. The unipotent radical Ru(Pe) is generated by the
Ua where a is a positive root which is not a linear combination of elements of 6.
Let Q be any parabolic Ar-subgroup of G, with unipotent radical V (which is
defined over k). A Levi subgroup of Q is a fc-subgroup L such that Q is the semi-
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