Agenda 0.1. Student achievement (number of satisfactory so- in mathematics as a function of effort. Very hard Quite hard Hardly at all (E = 5) (E = 3) (E = 1) ent 1 10 8 6 ent 2 8 7 5 ent 3 7 5 3 ent 4 7 4 3 ent 5 5 4 2 ent 6 4 2 1 ppose that the enrollment for some mathematics course umans, and that grades for this course are based exclu- ers to ten questions. Answers are judged to be either unsatisfactory, and the number of satisfactory solutions final letter grade for the course—A, B, C, D or F. In A corresponds to 4 units of merit, and B, C, D and F 3, 2, 1 and 0 units of merit, respectively. The students tual ability, and all are capable of working either very uite hard, or hardly at all but there is nothing random achievement as a function of effort, which is precisely able 0.1. Thus, for example, Student 5 will produce y solutions if she works very hard, but only four if she rd whereas Student 4 will produce seven satisfactory works very hard, but only three if he works hardly at nts have complete control over how much effort they we refer to effort as a decision variable. Furthermore, definiteness, we assume that working very hard cor- units of effort, quite hard to 3, and hardly at all to 1. note effort by E and merit by M, then working very ds to E — 5 obtaining the letter grade A corresponds similarly for the other values of E and M. w suppose that academic standards are absolute, i.e., satisfactory solutions required for each letter grade is dvance. Then no strategic behavior is possible. This ate scope for decision making—quite the contrary. If, or 10 satisfactory solutions were required for an A, 7

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