Agenda ld choose E 3 or Student 5 would choose E = 1, ng scheme would award her an A no matter how hard n particular, if she chose E = 1. But Students 5 and 6 ng only if they obtain at least 4 satisfactory solutions dent 3 or Student 4 chooses E — 1 in which case, six satisfactory solutions could earn Student 1 only B ould still maximize M/E). And so on. We have made nging from absolute to relative standards brings ample egic behavior to an interaction among individuals that none. action among individuals gives rise to strategic behav- interaction can be described mathematically, then we is description as a game, and to each individual in the yer. In other words, game means mathematical model argaining. Correspondingly, game theory is an assem- and theorems that attempts to provide a rational basis onflicts, with or without cooperation. You won't often efined in a dictionary. But new meanings take time to tionaries and besides, the study of decision-laden inter- individuals should perhaps be called something other ory. On the other hand, there are at least as many ween games in the mathematical modeller's sense, and veryday sense, as there are between—say—the gadget l my computer and a mouse. In any event, game is the e theory the phrase we shall use. nowledged field of study in its own right, game the- h the publication in 1944 of a treatise on games and vior by John Von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern.3 some game-theoretic concepts have been traced to ear- ournot [41], Edgeworth [56], Bohm-Bawerk [20], Borel hen [243] in the context of economics, and to Fisher text of evolutionary biology. Given the way things are it is probably only a matter of time before somebody first book on game theory was written by Aristotle.4 as we saw in the opening paragraphs—conflict can arise however, it is customary to consult the third edition [231]. rtaining tour of game theory's history, I recommend Mehlmann [136].

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