SPIRIT OF RAMANUJA N XI miles south-southwest of Madras, where her husband was a clerk in the office of a cloth merchant. At the age of twelve, Ramanujan bor- rowed a copy of the second part of Loney's Plane Trigonometry [149] from an older student and worked all the problems in it. This longtime popular textbook in India has much more in it than its title suggests. For example, infinite series and elementary functions of a complex variable are two of its topics. At the age of about fifteen, he borrowed from the Kumbakonam College library a copy of G. S. Carr's A Syn- opsis of Elementary Results in Pure Mathematics [64], which served as his primary source for learning mathematics. Carr was a tutor in London and compiled this compendium of 4417 results (with very few proofs) to facilitate his tutoring. At the age of sixteen, Ramanujan entered the Government College in Kumbakonam. By that time, Ra- manujan was completely devoted to mathematics and consequently failed his examinations at the end of his first year, because he would not study any other subject. He therefore lost his scholarship and, because his family was poor, was forced to terminate his formal edu- cation. He later twice tried to obtain an education at Pachaiyappa's College in Madras, but each time he failed his examinations. After leaving the Government College in Kumbakonam, Ramanu- jan devoted all of his time to mathematics, recording his results with- out proofs in notebooks. It was probably around the age of sixteen that Ramanujan began to record his mathematical discoveries in note- books, although the entries on magic squares in Chapter 1 in both his first and second notebooks likely emanate from his school days. Liv- ing in poverty with no means of financial support, suffering at times from serious illnesses, and working in isolation, Ramanujan devoted all of his efforts to mathematics and continued to record his discov- eries without proofs in notebooks for the next five years. In 1909, he married Janaki, who was only nine or ten years old. With mounting pressure to find a job, Ramanujan visited V. Ramaswami Ayyar, the founder of the Indian Mathematical Society. Ayyar contacted R. Ra- machandra Rao, who agreed to give Ramanujan, who now had moved to Madras, a monthly stipend so that Ramanujan could continue his mathematical research unabated.

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