XIV B. C. B E R N D T other diagnoses. However, D. A. B. Young [52, pp. 65-75] made a careful examination of all extant records and recorded symptoms of Ramanujan's illness and convincingly concluded that Ramanujan suf- fered from hepatic amoebiasis (a parasitic infection of the liver). Not only do all of Ramanujan's symptoms suggest this disease, but Ra- manujan's medical history in India also favors this diagnosis. Amoe- biasis is a protozoal infection of the large intestine that gives rise to dysentery. In 1906 Ramanujan left home to attend Pachaiyappa's College in Madras, where he contracted a severe case of dysentery and had to return home for three months. Unless adequately treated, the infection is permanent, although the patient may go for long pe- riods without exhibiting any symptoms. Relapses occur when the host-parasite relationship is disturbed, which likely happened when he endured a colder climate and perhaps inadequate nutrition after his arrival in England. The illness is difficult to diagnose. Our description of Ramanujan's life has been necessarily brief. For several years, the standard sources about Ramanujan's life have been the obituaries of P. V. Seshu Aiyar, R. Ramachandra Rao, and Hardy, found in Ramanujan's Collected Papers [192] and Chapter 1 of Hardy's book [107], By far, the most comprehensive biography of Ramanujan has been written by R. Kanigel [134]. The letters from and to Ramanujan are also a source of both mathematical and per- sonal information about Ramanujan, and most of the extant letters have been compiled with commentary by R. A. Rankin and the author [51]. After Ramanujan died, Hardy strongly urged that Ramanujan's notebooks be edited and published. By "editing," Hardy meant that each claim made by Ramanujan in his notebooks should be examined and proved, if it cannot be found in the literature. Ramanujan, in fact, had left his first notebook with Hardy when he returned to India in 1919, and in 1923 Hardy wrote a paper [106], [108, pp. 505-516] about a chapter on hypergeometric series found in the first notebook. In this paper, Hardy pointed out that Ramanujan had independently discovered most of the important classical results in the subject while also discovering several new theorems as well. For the definition of a hypergeometric series, see Chapter 5 of this monograph.
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