conventions
We indicate here the main notation and conventions used genera
in this work. Those which appear only in a chapter or section
defined in situ.
The letter N denotes the set of natural numbers {1,2,...}, and
that of prime numbers. The sets of integers, real numbers and co
plex numbers are denoted respectively by Z, R, and C. The let
p, with or without a subscript, always denotes an element of V.
write a \ b (resp. a \ b) to indicate that a divides (resp. does
divide) 6, and pu\\a to mean that p"\a but p^ + 1 \ a.
The gcd of two integers a, b is denoted by (a, b). Integers a an
with (a, b) = 1 are called coprime.
The number of elements of a finite set A is denoted, according
circumstances, by \A\ or J^aeA •*• We denote by P + (a) (resp. P~(
the greatest (resp. the least) prime factor of an integer a G N, w
the convention P
+
(l ) = 1, -P~(l) = oo.
The Napierian logarithm is denoted by log .(9) The iterates log l
log log log, e£c., are denoted by log2, log3, e^c.Euler's constant 7
(9Mog a is thus, for a ^ 1, the area of the region bounded by the axes x =
x = a, y = 0 and the curve y = 1/x. When a is "large", log a ~ Ylna V
n
-
X
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