38 2. Background A proof is an object of convincing. It should be an explicit, specific, logically sound argument that walks step by step from the hypotheses to the conclusions. Avoid vagueness and leaps of deduc- tion, and strip out irrelevant statements. Be careful to state what you are trying to prove in such a way that it does not appear you are asserting its truth prior to proving it. More broadly, make sure your steps are in the right order. Often, a good way to figure out how to prove something is to work backwards, in steps of “I get this as a con- clusion if this other property holds this property holds whenever the object is of this kind and oh, everything that meets my hypothesis is an object of that kind!” However, the final proof should be written from hypothesis to kind of object to special property to conclusion. True mathematical proofs are very verbal, bearing little to no re- semblance to the two-column proofs of high school geometry. A proof which is just strings of symbols with only a few words is unlikely to be a good (or even understandable) proof. However, it can also be clumsy and expand proofs out of readability to avoid symbols alto- gether. For example, it is important for specificity to assign symbolic names to (arbitrary) numbers and other objects to which you will want to refer. Striking the symbol/word balance is a big step on the way to learning to write good proofs. Make your proof self-contained except for explicit reference to definitions or previous results (i.e., don’t assume your reader is so familiar with the theorems that you may use them without comment instead say “by Theorem 2.5, . . .”). Be clear sentence fragments and tortured grammar have no place in mathematical proofs. If a sentence seems strained, try rearranging it, possibly involving the neighboring sentences. Do not fear to edit: the goal is a readable proof that does not require too much back-and-forth to understand. There is a place for words like would, could, should, might, and ought in proofs, but they should be kept to a minimum. Most of the time the appropriate words are has, will, does, and is. This is especially important in proofs by contradiction. Since in such a proof you are assuming something that is not true, it may feel more natural to use the subjunctive, but that can make things unclear. You assume some hypothesis given that hypothesis other statements are or are not true. Be bold and let

Purchased from American Mathematical Society for the exclusive use of nofirst nolast (email unknown) Copyright 2012 American Mathematical Society. Duplication prohibited. Please report unauthorized use to cust-serv@ams.org. Thank You! Your purchase supports the AMS' mission, programs, and services for the mathematical community.