NOTATION
o a constant is effective if it can be computed in a finite number of steps
from starting data;
o C(Ai, A2,...) or c(Ai, A2,...) denotes a constant depending on the param-
eters Ai, A2,.... Such constants may be supposed to be effective, unless
it is pointed out explicitly that they are not;
o a statement S(x) is true for almost all x G N if the statement holds for
N + o(N) values of x iV, N » 00. Similarly, a statement S(p) is true for
almost all p G P if it holds for
TT(7V)
+ o(ir(N)) values of p N, N - 00;
o the symbol denotes the end of a proof.
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